Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases Terms
Acid-Base IndicatorA molecule that changes color depending on the pH of the solution it is in. It's sort of like a chameleon, but not. Actually, it's nothing like a chameleon.
Acid-Dissociation Constant (Ka)The equilibrium constant for a reaction in which a reactant (an acid) donates a proton to water forming H3O+.
AcidicA solution that has a greater concentration of H3O+ molecules compared to the concentration of OH- molecules.
Arrhenius AcidA molecule that releases a proton (H+) in water.
Arrhenius BaseA molecule that releases hydroxide (OH-) in water.
Base-Dissociation Constant (Kb)The equilibrium constant for a reaction in which a reactant (a base) accepts a proton from water forming OH-.
BasicA solution that has a greater concentration of OH- molecules compared to the concentration of H3O+ molecules.
Brønsted-Lowry AcidA molecule that donates a proton (H+) to a proton acceptor molecule.
Brønsted-Lowry BaseA molecule that accepts a proton (H+) from a proton donor molecule.
Buffer CapacityThe ability of a buffer solution to absorb added H+ or OH- without significant changes in pH.
Buffer SolutionA solution of a weak acid or base in equilibrium with its conjugate base or acid that resists large changes in pH.
Conjugate AcidThe molecule resulting after an acid donates a proton (H+).
Conjugate Acid-Base PairsAn acid and its conjugate base or a base and its conjugate acid.
Conjugate BaseThe molecule resulting after a base accepts a proton (H+).
Diprotic AcidAn acid that has two protons (H+) available to transfer to a base (or water).
Equivalence PointThe region of a titration curve that exhibits a sharp change in pH at which point equivalent amounts of acid and base have been mixed.
Hydronium IonThe H3O+ ion that results when a proton is transferred to H2O.
Hydroxide IonThe OH- ion that results when a proton is lost from H2O+.
Ion-Product Constant For WaterThe equilibrium constant for the dissociation of water to give a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion.
Lewis AcidAn electron-pair acceptor.
Lewis BaseAn electron-pair donor.
MonoproticAn acid that has just one proton to transfer.
NeutralA solution that has an equal concentration of H3O+ and OH- molecules (1 × 10-7 M at 25° C).
Neutralization ReactionA reaction between an acid and base that results in the production of H2O and brings the pH of the reaction solution closer to neutrality.
Percent DissociationThe concentration of acid (or base) that dissociates at equilibrium divided by the initial concentration of acid.
PH ScaleThe scale on which the acidity or basicity of a solution is measured. The pH equals –log([H3O+]).
PH Titration CurveA plot of the pH of a solution (usually measured with a pH meter), versus the volume of added titrant.
Polyprotic AcidAn acid that can transfer two or more protons.
Principle ReactionThe proton transfer reaction of a weak acid/base equilibrium that progresses furthest to the right and has the largest equilibrium constant.
Strong AcidAn acid that nearly fully dissociates in water.
Subsidiary Reaction(s)The reaction(s) involved in a weak acid/base equilibrium that do not contribute to significant changes in product concentrations (that is, reactions that are not the principle reaction).
TitrationThe incremental addition of a strong acid or base to a solution of acid or base.
Weak AcidAn acid that slightly dissociates in water.
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