© 2014 Shmoop University, Inc. All rights reserved.
Africa

Africa

by Maya Angelou

Suffering Quotes

How we cite our quotes:

Quote #1

brigands ungentled
icicle bold (11-12)

Before we even get to a description of the violence perpetrated by white slavers, these lines foreshadow the oncoming disaster. Check out the adjectives: "ungentled" and "bold" aren't exactly a warm and fuzzy combination, are they? That's precisely the unsettling feeling Angelou wants to create, so that by the time we get to the actual violence, we're already on the edge of our seats.

Quote #2

took her young daughters
sold her strong sons (13-14)

Notice how both of these lines start with verbs? It breaks each line into a short, violent action – "took" and "sold" seem almost like wounds that erupt onto each new line. The absence of much other description makes these actions stand out in stark relief.

Quote #3

churched her with Jesus (15)

For Angelou, Jesus is an imposition upon cultures that already had their own well-developed belief systems. The fact that this line starts with a verb (like all the others in the middle of the second stanza) allows the speaker to lump religious conversion in with the forms of violence perpetrated by slavers.

People who Shmooped this also Shmooped...

Advertisement
Advertisement
Advertisement