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Animal Evolution and Diversity
Animal Evolution and Diversity

Test Your Knowledge

What is an Animal?

1. The six kingdoms of life are:

2. Animals are:
  
a. Prokaryotic
b. Heterotrophic
c. Haploid
d. a. and b.
e. b. and c.

3. What unique tissues are characteristic of animals:

4. A cell with two sets of chromosomes is called:
  
a. Haploid
b. Diplomate
c. Dimorphic
d. Haplite
e. Diploid

5. Eukaryotic cells always have
  
a. Cell walls
b. Organs
c. A nucleus
d. a. and c.
e. b. and c.

Animal Evolution

1. Where did animal life first begin?

2. The era that starts with the spread of animals is called:
  
a. Phaetonizoic
b. Phanerozoic
c. Phantasmozoic
d. Phanterozoic
e. Phanerophyzoic

3. Hominids first appeared in what period?
  
a. Triassic
b. Jurassic
c. Tertiary
d. Cretaceous
e. Quaternary

4. Animals first spread to land in what period?
  
a. Cambrian
b. Silurian
c. Devonian
d. Permian
e. Ordovician

5. Which period saw a tremendous explosion in animal diversity?
  
a. Cambrian
b. Silurian
c. Devonian
d. Permian
e. Ordovician

The Animal Family Tree

1. What is a coelom?

2. The first branch in the animal phyla is between:
  
a. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
b. Parazoa and Eumetazoa
c. Coelomates, Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates
d. Single-celled and multi-cellular animal
e. Protists and fungi

3. The animal family tree branches numerous times. List some of the major changes that lead to the different branches.

4. Unlike plants, animals cannot make their own food and must eat other organisms. This is called being a:
  
a. Protostome
b. Haploid
c. Heterotroph
d. Heteromorph
e. Autotroph

5. All of the following are characteristics of animals, EXCEPT:
  
a. Muscle and nerve tissue
b. Heterotrophic
c. Eukaryotic
d. Absence of cell walls
e. Manufacture own food

Let the Food Come to Them

1. Sponges can reproduce sexually and asexually. They reproduce asexually through:
  
a. Replication
b. Renovation
c. Regeneration
d. Respiration
e. Regulation

2. Sponges are suspension feeders. This does not mean that they hang from something while they eat. What does it mean?

3. Flagella serve what purpose in a sponge:

4. A sponge does not have a mouth. Instead, they get their nutrients through:
  
a. Gametes
b. Flagella
c. Cell walls
d. Pores
e. Antennae

Polyps and Medusas

1. Which is not from the phylum Cnidaria:
  
a. Hydra
b. Jellyfish
c. Coral
d. Sponges
e. Sea anemones

2. Which of the following is FALSE regarding the Cnidarians and Ctenophorans:
  
a. Their body symmetry differs
b. Only one has a sensory organ
c. Only one has stinging cells
d. Only Cnidarians have tentacles
e. Only Ctenophorans have comb-like cilia

Get A-head

1. Why are flatworms flat?

2. Cephalization is a new evolutionary development with this group. What does that mean?

3. Characteristics of this branch of animals include all, except:
  
a. Bilateral symmetry
b. Three germ layers (triploblastic)
c. Internal skeletons
d. Cephalization
e. Sensory organs

4. Name the acoelomate and pseudocoelomate phyla:

5. Rotifera and Nematoda have the following differences from the flatworms, except:
  
a. They are round and have circulatory systems and a complete digestive system.
b. Bilateral symmetry
c. Sensory organs and a head (cephalization)
d. They include species that live off of other animals.
e. A third germ layer is produced that leads to true muscle and nerve tissue.

Invertebrates Get More Complex

1. What are the basic parts of a mollusk?

2. Cephalopods have some qualities that make them different from other mollusks. Which one of these is NOT one?
  
a. Open circulatory system
b. Ability to camouflage themselves
c. Tentacles with suckers
d. Ink sac to distract predators
e. Bursts of speed by propelling water out of mantle cavity

3. All of these are mollusks except:
  
a. Polyplacophora (chitons)
b. Rotifera
c. Gastropoda
d. Bivalvia
e. Cephalopoda

4. The shell of a mollusk is produced by the:
  
a. Visceral mass
b. Shell gland
c. Mantle
d. Foot
e. Mantle cavity

What's in a Worm?

1. Characteristics of annelids:

2. The three classes of annelids are:

3. Annelids have bristles on the outside and these are called:
  
a. Septa
b. Parapodia
c. Setae
d. Spatula
e. Parazoa

4. The segments of an annelid body are called:
  
a. Metazoa
b. Metamorphosis
c. Metabolites
d. Metameres
e. Metacarpals

5. Parapodia serve a similar purpose to:
  
a. Antennae
b. Fins
c. Teeth
d. Feet
e. Tentacles

Life Takes to the Land

1. Arthropods have an exoskeleton made of:
  
a. Chiton
b. Carapace
c. Crustacea
d. Chitin
e. Chilopoda

2. Arthropods can be broken into five subphyla, which are:

3. Insects and spiders are arthropods, but not from the same subphylum. List some differences:

4. Crustacean legs are unusual for arthropods. They are biramous, which means:
  
a. Two legs on each segment
b. Two legs on the abdomen
c. Two segments per leg
d. One leg serves two purposes
e. One segment of the leg branches into two segments

Controversial Cousins

1. Lophophores are different than the tentacles around the mouth of other animals like octopus because:

2. Brachiopods look like mollusks, but are actually more closely related to:
  
a. Bryozoa
b. Porifera
c. Cephalopoda
d. Bivalvia
e. Polyps

3. What powers the tube feet of echinoderms?

4. Like arthropods, an echinoderm's life cycle is characterized by what process:
  
a. Parthogenesis
b. Metamorphosis
c. Regeneration
d. Molting
e. Budding

Get a Backbone

1. What are the three Chordate subphyla and what do they have in common?

2. Vertebrates are divided into two groups: fish and tetrapods. Which classes are included in each?

3. Agnathans lack all of the following except:
  
a. Jaws
b. Swim bladder
c. Fins on opposite sides
d. Vertebrae
e. Rayed fins

4. Sharks have what adaptations for speed and carnivory?

5. What characteristics distinguish bony fishes from the other fish?

Nothing Like a Place at the Beach

1. The first animals on land were the arthropods. What group was the first vertebrate?
  
a. Reptiles
b. Lobe-finned fish
c. Insects
d. Crustaceans
e. Amphibians

2. Reptiles have numerous adaptations to life on land, except:
  
a. Scales
b. Metamorphosis
c. Amniotic egg
d. Claws or nails
e. Four-chambered heart

3. The major reptile groups today include all except:
  
a. Newts and salamanders
b. Turtles
c. Snakes
d. Lizards
e. Crocodiles and alligators

4. Reptile adaptations to land include all except:
  
a. Watertight skin
b. Amniotic egg
c. Claws
d. Backbone
e. Lungs

Now You're Getting Hot

1. Birds descended from an ancestor that came from which group:
  
a. Amphibians
b. Mammals
c. Lungfish
d. Reptiles
e. Bats

2. Which features of reptiles did birds NOT retain:
  
a. Teeth
b. Amniotic egg
c. Feathers
d. Scales
e. Vertebrate tail

3. Name some avian adaptations for flight:

4. Birds and mammals are endotherms. This means they:
  
a. Live in a range of temperatures
b. Can regulate their need for water
c. Regulate body temperature internally
d. Bask in the sun to stay warm
e. Need to keep moving to breathe

Cute and Furry

1. Which came first, birds or mammals? Did they descend from the same root ancestor?

2. All subclasses of mammals have the following, except:
  
a. Mammary glands
b. Fur or hair
c. Teeth
d. Neocortex
e. Placenta

3. Name the three subclasses or groups of mammals:

4. What marsupial lives in the United States?

5. Which are not mammals:
  
a. Horses
b. Squirrels
c. Dolphins
d. Sharks
e. Whales

Primates

1. Which of these things doesn't belong to the primate family:
  
a. Lemur
b. Raccoon
c. Orangutan
d. Chimpanzee
e. Human

2. Name some traits that all primates have:

3. Primates can be divided into:

4. What is NOT true about the difference between apes and monkeys?
  
a. Apes have tails
b. Apes have smaller front limbs in relation the back ones
c. Apes have larger brains
d. Monkeys tend to be smaller
e. All of the above

Possible Answers

What is an Animal?

1. The six kingdoms of life are: 

Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

2. Animals are: 

b. Heterotrophic

Animals are eukaryotic, heterotrophic and diploid, so the only possible answer is b.

3. What unique tissues are characteristic of animals:

Muscles and nerves.

4. A cell with two sets of chromosomes is called:

e. Diploid

Haploid means one set of chromosomes. Haplite, diplomate and dimorphic don't have anything to do with chromosomes. Wanted to see if you were paying attention.

5. Eukaryotic cells always have

b. Organs
c. A nucleus
Solution: e. b. and c.

Plants and fungi are eukaryotic and their cells have walls. However, animal cells are eukaryotic and do not have walls.

Animal Evolution

1. Where did animal life first begin?

In water.

2. The era that starts with the spread of animals is called:

b. Phanerozoic

Again, make sure to pay attention to spelling. These all start out and end the same, but only one is the right era. Knowing roots helps.

3. Hominids first appeared in what period?

c. Tertiary

We are currently in the Quaternary period, but hominids came about in the one before.

4. Animals first spread to land in what period?

e. Ordovician

The first animals on land came during the Ordovician period.

5. Which period saw a tremendous explosion in animal diversity?

a. Cambrian

The Cambrian period is the first period in the Phanerozoic era, the era when animals appear and animals appear with a bang.

The Animal Family Tree

1. What is a coelom?

A coelom is the internal body cavity that forms in some animal embryos.

2. The first branch in the animal phyla is between:

b. Parazoa and Eumetazoa

Para- means "sort of" and eu- means "true". The first branch is between the almost animals and everyone else.

3. The animal family tree branches numerous times. List some of the major changes that lead to the different branches.

Formation of true tissues, body symmetry (bilateral vs radial), formation of the interior space (coelom)

4. Unlike plants, animals cannot make their own food and must eat other organisms. This is called being a:

c. Heterotroph

The root word "troph" means eat. "Auto" means you can do it on your own (like "automatic"). "Hetero" comes from the Greek for other. Heterotrophs are "other-eaters."

5. All of the following are characteristics of animals, EXCEPT:

e. Manufacture own food

Plants can manufacture their own food. We can't.

Let the Food Come to Them

1. Sponges can reproduce sexually and asexually. They reproduce asexually through:

c. Regeneration

The prefix "re" means to do something again. Sponges can generate themselves again, without any help from another sponge.

2. Sponges are suspension feeders. This does not mean that they hang from something while they eat. What does it mean?

Sponges absorb nutrients that are suspended in the water. Tiny food particles are filtered from the water that enters the animals.

3. Flagella serve what purpose in a sponge:

To move water in one direction so nutrients can be absorbed and wastes moved out

4. A sponge does not have a mouth. Instead, they get their nutrients through:

d. Pores

A pore is an opening in the surface of something.

Polyps and Medusas

1. Which is not from the phylum Cnidaria:

d. Sponges

Sponges are Porifera.

2. Which of the following is FALSE regarding the Cnidarians and Ctenophorans:

a. Their body symmetry differs

Animals in both these phyla have radial symmetry.

Get A-head

1. Why are flatworms flat?

They are flat because they have no circulatory systems and more surface area means more access to oxygen for all their cells.

2. Cephalization is a new evolutionary development with this group. What does that mean?

It means that there is a distinct front end or head. This head also acts the central location for certain functions, like nervous system control and sensory organs.

3. Characteristics of this branch of animals include all, except:

c. Internal skeletons

No skeletons yet. That comes later.

4. Name the acoelomate and pseudocoelomate phyla:

Acoelomate: Platyhelminthes, Nemertea. Pseudocoelomate: Rotifera, Nematoda

5. Rotifera and Nematoda have the following differences from the flatworms, except:

b. Bilateral symmetry

All these animals have bilateral symmetry.

Invertebrates Get More Complex

1. What are the basic parts of a mollusk?

Foot, Mantle, Mantle Cavity, Visceral Mass

2. Cephalopods have some qualities that make them different from other mollusks. Which one of these is NOT one?

a. Open circulatory system

The other mollusks have closed circulatory systems.

3. All of these are mollusks except:

b. Rotifera

4. The shell of a mollusk is produced by the:

c. Mantle

The mantle is on the top of the organism, right under the shell it produces.

What's in a Worm?

1. Characteristics of annelids:

Complete digestive and circulatory systems, closed circulation, digestive system with distinct parts, body segmentation forming metameres, hydrostatic skeleton

2. The three classes of annelids are:

Oligochaeta, Polychaeta, Hirunidea

3. Annelids have bristles on the outside and these are called:

c. Setae

Parapodia are like feet. Sponges are a kind of parazoa. Septa are the walls between the segments of a worm. A spatula belongs in the kitchen.

4. The segments of an annelid body are called:

d. Metameres

Lots of metas. Metazoa is another name for the kingdom Animalia. Metabolites are things produced during metabolism. Metacarpals are bones in your fingers.

5. Parapodia serve a similar purpose to:

d. Feet

"Podia" means feet.

Life Takes to the Land

1. Arthropods have an exoskeleton made of:

d. Chitin

Chitin is the tough carbohydrate that covers arthropods.

2. Arthropods can be broken into five subphyla, which are:

Trilobita, Chelicerata, Crustacea, Myrapodia, Hexapodia

3. Insects and spiders are arthropods, but not from the same subphylum. List some differences:

A. Six legs (insect) and eight legs (spider)
B. Three body parts or tagmata (insect) and two (spider)
C. Antennae (insect) and no antennae (spider)

4. Crustacean legs are unusual for arthropods. They are biramous, which means:

e. One segment of the leg branches into two segments

Crustaceans do not have two legs on each segment or specifically on the abdomen. Two segments per leg is not unique to crustaceans. It's those double ends on crustacean legs that are unique.

Controversial Cousins

1. Lophophores are different than the tentacles around the mouth of other animals like octopus because:

These tentacles are hollow extensions of the coelom and are lined with cilia.

2. Brachiopods look like mollusks, but are actually more closely related to:

a. Bryozoa

None of the rest of these are Lochotrophozoa.

3. What powers the tube feet of echinoderms?

Hydraulic pressure within a water vascular system

4. Like arthropods, an echinoderm's life cycle is characterized by what process:

b. Metamorphosis

Parthogenesis isn't a life cycle (life style, maybe), but a form of reproduction. Budding is a form of reproduction too. Regeneration is a way to produce lost body parts and molting is a way to replace worn-out parts or parts that are too small.

Get a Backbone

1. What are the three Chordate subphyla and what do they have in common?

Cephalochordata, Urochordata, Vertebrata

Four things:

i. Notochord
ii. Hollow nerve cord
iii. Pharyngeal slits
iv. Muscular tail

2. Vertebrates are divided into two groups: fish and tetrapods. Which classes are included in each?

Fish: Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes
Tetrapods: Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia

3. Agnathans lack all of the following except:

d. Vertebrae

All the fish are vertebrates. Agnathans evolved before some of the other features came about.

4. Sharks have what adaptations for speed and carnivory?

Fusiform body, strong jaws, sharp and easily replaceable teeth, developed senses including: sight, smell, hearing, electromagnetic reception, and vibration detection (lateral line system)

5. What characteristics distinguish bony fishes from the other fish?

Bony, hard internal skeleton, swim bladder, and pivoting fins.

Nothing Like a Place at the Beach

1. The first animals on land were the arthropods. What group was the first vertebrate?

e. Amphibians

The first vertebrates on land were the ones that still depended on water for part of their life, amphibians.

2. Reptiles have numerous adaptations to life on land, except:

b. Metamorphosis

Reptiles have the same general form throughout their life.

3. The major reptile groups today include all except:

a. Newts and salamanders

Newts and salamanders are amphibians, not reptiles.

4. Reptile adaptations to land include all except:

d. Backbone

Fish have backbones, too.

Now You're Getting Hot

1. Birds descended from an ancestor that came from which group:

d. Reptiles

Some reptiles had feathers, just like birds.

2. Which features of reptiles did birds NOT retain:

a. Teeth

Look again at the bird feeder. No teeth in a beak.

3. Name some avian adaptations for flight:
  • Feather shaped like airfoils
  • Light skeletons
  • Lungs with separate air sacs for increased oxygen
  • Reduced size and number of organs
  • Developed sense of vision
4. Birds and mammals are endotherms. This means they:

c. Regulate body temperature internally

"Endo" means internal and "thermo" has to do with heat.

Cute and Furry

1. Which came first, birds or mammals? Did they descend from the same root ancestor?

Mammals came first. Birds and mammals came from different reptile ancestors.

2. All subclasses of mammals have the following, except:

e. Placenta

This is what makes the monotremes so different—no placenta. They lay eggs

3. Name the three subclasses or groups of mammals:

Monotremes, Marsupials, Eutherians

4. What marsupial lives in the United States?

Opossum

5. Which are not mammals:

d. Sharks

Sharks don't have hair or fur and they don't nurse their young.

Primates

1. Which of these things doesn't belong to the primate family:

b. Raccoon

Racoons do have paws that look a bit like hands and they can be very good at using them to root through the trash. However, they don't have opposable thumbs.

2. Name some traits that all primates have:

Opposable thumb, nails instead of claws, large brains

3. Primates can be divided into:

Prosimians and Anthropoids

4. What is NOT true about the difference between apes and monkeys?

a. Apes have tails
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