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Animal Reproduction
Animal Reproduction

Test Your Knowledge

Basics of Reproduction

1) The need to reproduce is called a___________.
  
a. law of reproduction
b. biological imperative
c. stage of puberty
d. life necessity
e. biological gain

2) The difference between a diploid cell and a haploid cell is:
  
a. the number of parents
b. the type of gamete it is
c. the total number of chromosomes
d. how many of each chromosome there are (or the number of versions)
e. none of the above

3) Genetics are important in reproduction; rank these from smallest to largest:
  
a. DNA, Genome, Gene, Chromosome
b. Genome, Gene, Chromosome, DNA
c. Gene, DNA, Chromosome, Genome
d. Chromosome, Gene, DNA, genome
e. DNA, Gene, Chromosome, Genome

4) True or False: A lion is likely to have more offspring than a frog.

5) True or False: Many hydras use asexual reproduction.

Gametes

1) Meiosis turns _____ diploid cell(s) into _______ haploid cell(s).
  
a. 2, 4
b. 2, 2
c. 1, 2
d. 1, 4
e. 1, 1

2) Recombination is the swapping of_____________.
  
a. bits of chromosomes
b. entire chromosomes
c. gametes
d. sets of chromosomes
e. entire genomes

3) Sperm are produced in the_____________.
  
a. male
b. seminiferous tubules
c. testes
d. all of the above
e. none of the above


4) Germ cells are________________.
  
a. killer of sperm and eggs
b. pre-sperm and pre-eggs
c. fully developed gametes
d. the tiny cells that are formed during unequal splits in oogenesis
e. none of the above

5) What is special about hermaphrodites?
  
a. they can produce both male and female gametes
b. they don't need sperm for fertilization
c. they produce eggs once a year
d. they make more sperm than any other animal
e. they have the largest size sperm

Courtship

1) Which of the following means that an animal mates only once in its lifetime?
  
a. Once-courting
b. Semelparity
c. Iteroparity
d. In-estrus
e. In-heat

2) The ___________ cycle is based on hormones and determines when a female is capable of reproduction.
  
a. elk
b. emu
c. eaglet
d. estrous
e. egret

3) A sexual dimorphism is___________.
  
a. a type of sexual selection
b. a type of courtship
c. a difference between males and females
d. a type of asexual reproduction
e. a type of special gamete

4) Intrasexual selection is different from intersexual selection because of______________.
  
a. how many partners are being compared
b. which sex chooses the mate
c. if it is asexual or sexual reproduction
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

5) True or False All animals travel to a special place for breeding.

Fertilization

1) External fertilization is beneficial because_________________.
  
a. the father is not necessary
b. there are no special organs necessary
c. predators cannot get to the eggs
d. only one offspring can be produced at once
e. the mother cannot protect the eggs

2) When does the acrosomal reaction occur?
  
a. when the sperm is traveling through the vagina to the egg
b. when the vagina is preparing for the sperm
c. when the sperm is actually entering the egg
d. when the sperm is blocked by polyspermy
e. none of the above

3) A _____________ is an opening for reproduction and waste excretion.
  
a. vagina
b. type of gamete
c. cloaca
d. uterus
e. none of the above

4) True or False. Parthenogenesis never involves copulation behavior.

5) True or False. It is possible to have multiple offspring from internal fertilization.

Early Development

1) What is an oviparous animal?
   
a. An animal that releases more than one gamete
b. An animal that eats eggs
c. An animal that develops inside an egg outside of the body
d. An animal that protects its eggs
e. None of the above

2) Marsupials are known for____________.
  
a. a really long gestation
b. giving birth to giant babies
c. laying giant eggs
d. carrying babies in a pouch
e. all of the above

3) Which animal is an anamniote?
  
a. Fish
b. Dog
c. Human
d. Lizard
e. Zebra

4) A precursor to an arm or leg is called a _____________.
  
a. limbette
b. limb bud
c. hemi-limb
d. baby limb
e. pre-limb

5) Mammals develop inside the mother and are attached to the _________ by the ____________.
  
a. vagina, uterus
b. amniotic sac, placenta
c. placenta, umbilical cord
d. placenta, uterus
e. none of the above

Birth and Hatching

1) Parturition is also known as:
  
a. Birth from an egg
b. Live birth
c. Early care
d. Sexual Maturity
e. Giving birth to many many offspring

2) The special hard pointy device that some animals use to break out of an egg is called an____.
  
a. eye claw
b. egg tooth
c. egg saw
d. egg hammer
e. none of the above

3) Which part of a mammal dilates (opens up) to allow a baby to be born?
  
a. vagina
b. gamete
c. ovary
d. cervix
e. cloaca

4) A parent with few offspring would likely give ________parental care compared to one with many many offspring.
  
a. less
b. more
c. the same
d. half as much
e. none of the above

5) If an egg is laid and then the mother leaves and never returns, what type of animal will likely come out of it? 
  
a. An unhealthy animal
b. An animal that is mostly developed
c. An animal that needs lots of care
d. A blue animal
e. None of the above

Solutions

Basics of Reproduction

1) The need to reproduce is called a___________.
  
a. law of reproduction
b. biological imperative
c. stage of puberty
d. life necessity
e. biological gain

A biological imperative is something that all living things have an urge to do because it is necessary to continue life.

2) The difference between a diploid cell and a haploid cell is:
  
a. the number of parents
b. the type of gamete it is
c. the total number of chromosomes
d. how many of each chromosome there are (or the number of versions)
e. none of the above

The difference is not the total number of chromosomes, but the total number of each chromosome. There is usually a maternal version and a paternal version in a diploid cell. A haploid cell only has one version of each chromosome.

3) Genetics are important in reproduction; rank these from smallest to largest:
   
a. DNA, Genome, Gene, Chromosome
b. Genome, Gene, Chromosome, DNA
c. Gene, DNA, Chromosome, Genome
d. Chromosome, Gene, DNA, genome
e. DNA, Gene, Chromosome, Genome

The genome is made up of chromosomes, chromosomes are made up of genes, and genes are made up of DNA.

4) True or False: A lion is likely to have more offspring than a frog.

False. Usually, larger animals have less offspring than smaller animals because it is harder to produce a larger animal.

5) True or False: Many hydras use asexual reproduction.

True. Hydras often reproduce asexually. A new animal forms as a bud on the original animal and eventually it breaks off.

Gametes

1) Meiosis turns _____ diploid cell(s) into _______ haploid cell(s).
  
a. 2, 4
b. 2, 2
c. 1, 2
d. 1, 4
e. 1, 1

Meiosis begins with one diploid cell which doubles its chromosomes and then undergoes two cell divisions to form 4 haploid cells.

2) Recombination is the swapping of_____________.
  
a. bits of chromosomes
b. entire chromosomes
c. gametes
d. sets of chromosomes
e. entire genomes

Bits of chromosome are swapped in recombination to create more diverse gametes.

3) Sperm are produced in the_____________.
  
a. male
b. seminiferous tubules
c. testes
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

Sperm are produced in seminiferous tubules, which are part of the testes, a sex organ in all males.

4) Germ cells are________________.
  
a. killer of sperm and eggs
b. pre-sperm and pre-eggs
c. fully developed gametes
d. the tiny cells that are formed during unequal splits in oogenesis
e. none of the above

The germ cells are the cells at the beginning stage of spermatogenesis and oogenesis: spermatogonia and oogonia.

5) What is special about hermaphrodites?
  
a. They can produce both male and female gametes
b. They don't need sperm for fertilization
c. They produce eggs once a year
d. They make more sperm than any other animal
e. They have the largest size sperm

Hermaphrodites can produce both male and female gametes. Sometimes this is at the same time, and sometimes they can just switch sexes.

Courtship

1) Which of the following means that an animal mates only once in its lifetime?
  
a. Once-courting
b. Semelparity
c. Iteroparity
d. In-estrus
e. In-heat

Semelparity is big-bang reproduction where an animal puts all of their resources into a single round of replication. They usually die after because they have spent all of their energy.

2) The ___________ cycle is based on hormones and determines when a female is capable of reproduction.
  
a. elk
b. emu
c. eaglet
d. estrous
e. egret

The estrous cycle is the hormone cycle. The other answers are all animals that begin with the letter E!

3) A sexual dimorphism is___________.
  
a. a type of sexual selection
b. a type of courtship
c. a difference between males and females
d. a type of asexual reproduction
e. a type of special gamete

A dimorphism is a difference between two things. A sexual dimorphism is a difference between the two sexes. This can be size or color or shape or anything. There are lots of differences between males and females.

4) Intrasexual selection is different from intersexual selection because of______________.
  
a. how many partners are being compared
b. which sex chooses the mate
c. if it is asexual or sexual reproduction
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

None of the above is correct. The difference is that in intersexual selection the two sexes are involved in the selection with one showing off and the other choosing. In intrasexual selection, it is more like a competition between members of the same sex, with one "winner" who gets to mate. Since either a male or a female could be the selector in each situation then answer B is wrong. Although it is less common, sometimes females compete during intrasexual and sometimes females show off for intersexual.

5) True or False All animals travel to a special place for breeding.
  
False. Some animals travel to special places every year for breeding, but not all animals. Some animals just hang out in one habitat all the time whether they are mating not.

Fertilization

1) External fertilization is beneficial because_________________.
  
a. the father is not necessary
b. there are no special organs necessary
c. predators cannot get to the eggs
d. only one offspring can be produced at once
e. the mother cannot protect the eggs

External fertilization means that they can just release the gametes without the need for special organs for entry, like the penis.

2) When does the acrosomal reaction occur?
  
a. When the sperm is traveling through the vagina to the egg
b. When the vagina is preparing for the sperm
c. When the sperm is actually entering the egg
d. When the sperm is blocked by polyspermy
e. None of the above

The acrosomal process is a specific part of entry of egg by the sperm. The acrosomal head elongates and penetrates into the egg.

3) A _____________ is an opening for reproduction and waste excretion.
  
a. vagina
b. type of gamete
c. cloaca
d. uterus
e. none of the above

The cloaca can be found in both males and females. It is used for both reproduction and waste excretion. In birds, cloacas are pressed together for sharing of gametes.

4) True or False. Parthenogenesis never involves copulation behavior.
  
False. Some types of parthenogenesis involve copulation behavior even though it is not functional. In whiptail lizards it helps with egg stimulation.

5) True or False. It is possible to have multiple offspring from internal fertilization.
  
True. It is definitely possible to have multiple offspring. Cats and dogs often have litters of mutiple kittens or puppies. This is because they release multiple eggs at one time. These eggs could even have been fertilized by different males and the litter could be part Dalmatian and part Pug.

Early Development

1) What is an oviparous animal?
  
a. An animal that releases more than one gamete
b. An animal that eats eggs
c. An animal that develops inside an egg outside of the body
d. An animal that protects its eggs
e. None of the above

Oviparous animals reproduce with eggs that develop outside of the body. Some might protect their eggs, but not all.

2) Marsupials are known for____________.
  
a. a really long gestation
b. giving birth to giant babies
c. laying giant eggs
d. carrying babies in a pouch
e. all of the above

Marsupials, such as kangaroos, carry their babies in pouches while the finish developing. They give birth when they are very undeveloped.

3) Which animal is an anamniote?

a. Fish

b. Dog
c. Human
d. Lizard
e. Zebra

A fish is an anamniote. It lays its eggs in the water. The other animals are amniotes with embryos that develop on land.

4) A precursor to an arm or leg is called a _____________.

a. limbette
b. limb bud
c. hemi-limb
d. baby limb
e. pre-limb

A limb bud is the starting collection of cells that will make an arm or a leg in an embryo.

5) Mammals develop inside the mother and are attached to the _________ by the ____________.
  
a. vagina, uterus
b. amniotic sac, placenta
c. placenta, umbilical cord
d. placenta, uterus
e. none of the above

The placenta connects to the mother. It also connects to the baby via the amniotic cord. The placenta is like the go-between between the mother and the baby.

Birth and Hatching

1) Parturition is also known as:

a. Birth from an egg
b. Live birth
c. Early care
d. Sexual Maturity
e. Giving birth to many many offspring

Parturition means live birth.

2) The special hard pointy device that some animals use to break out of an egg is called an____.
  
a. eye claw
b. egg tooth
c. egg saw
d. egg hammer
e. none of the above

The egg tooth is a small hard bump which helps an animal to escape an egg.

3) Which part of a mammal dilates (opens up) to allow a baby to be born?
a. vagina
b. gamete
c. ovary
d. cervix
e. cloaca

The cervix is normally a tiny opening, but when a baby has to come through it, it opens up pretty wide. Some mothers would say it does not open wide enough.

4) A parent with few offspring would likely give ________ parental care compared to one with many many offspring.
  
a. less
b. more
c. the same
d. half as much
e. none of the above

A parent with few offspring usually takes good care of them because they are their only chance at passing on their genes. Parents with many offspring have plenty of chances, so they are usually more hands-off parents.

5) If an egg is laid and then the mother leaves and never returns, what type of animal will likely come out of it?
  
a. An unhealthy animal
b. An animal that is mostly developed
c. An animal that needs lots of care
d. A blue animal
e. None of the above

The animal will likely be mostly developed. If the mother leaves on purpose, it probably means that she knows the offspring will be fine without her.
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