Subtraction is the mirror opposite of addition. The most important thing to know is that
subtracting a positive = adding a negative
subtracting a negative = adding a positive
Got it? Don't worry, we'll explain.
Try to visualize this by looking at the example (-3) - (-7).
Now we can take away seven negatives. Four positives remain and that's your answer, +4. Do not worry if you added too many zero pairs. If you have extra pairs remaining, just remember that each pair of positives and negatives make zero.
Since subtraction is the opposite of addition, move in the opposite direction.
For the example 4 – 7, start at the +4. Now jump 7 places to the left, in the negative direction. We land on (-3).
|6 – (-2)|
Start at 6. Jump 2 places to the right. You land on the answer, +8.
|-4 – (-4)|
Start at –4. Jump 4 places to the right. You land on the answer, 0.
|-5 – (3)|
Start at -5. Jump 3 places to the left. You land on the answer, -8.
|4 – 10|
Start at +4. Jump 10 places to the left. You land on the answer, -6.
|Add The Opposite. Change the subtraction sign to addition and change the second number to the opposite sign.|
|Then follow the rules of addition.|
Look Out: many students make the mistake of changing the sign of the first number in the problem. This will result in an incorrect answer, so be sure to always change the sign of the second number.
(-4) - 8
3 - 12
5 - (-7)
(-9) - (-8)