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Cells
Cells

Test Your Knowledge!

Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Questions

  1. List three similarities and three differences between plant and animal cells.

  2. How does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) differ from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)? 

  3. Do any human cells have flagella? If so, which ones?

Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function

  1. Without looking back, name the four main structures shared by all prokaryotic cells. 

  2. How do you know that all prokaryotic cells make proteins? 

  3. How is the bacterial genome different from the eukaryotic genome? 

Cell Membranes Questions

  1. Describe the structure of a phospholipid. Why is this structure important for forming membranes? 

  2. What processes take place in mitochondria and chloroplasts? How do the products of these processes relate to each other? 

  3. What function does a double bilayer perform in mitochondria? 

Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Answers

  1. Answer: Some similarities are as follows: the presence of a nucleus, a cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA, RNA, proteins, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, etc. Some differences are as follows: plant cells have chloroplasts, large vacuoles, and cell walls; some animal cells have centrioles, flagella, and cilia. 

  2. Answer: The SER is the site of lipid production and is not studded with ribosomes. The RER is the site of protein production, especially membrane protein production, and is therefore studded with ribosomes to make it rough and rowdy. 

  3. Answer: Yes. Human sperm cells have flagella.

Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function Answers

  1. Answer: The four main structures shared by all prokaryotic cells are the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and genetic material. 

  2. Answer: All prokaryotic cells have ribosomes, the cellular structure responsible for making proteins. 

  3. Answer: The bacterial genome is usually a single, circular piece of DNA, or a single chromosome. The eukaryotic genome, on the other hand, usually consists of multiple, linear strands of DNA. Humans have 23 chromosomes, for instance.

Cell Membranes Answers

  1. Answer: Phospholipids are composed of both hydrophobic, or lipid, and hydrophilic, or phosphorous-based, parts. This means that they can form bilayers with water on either side. It is this special property that allows for membranes to form at all. 

  2. Answer: Mitochondria convert sugars into ATP and CO2 through the process of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts convert CO2 into sugars through the process of photosynthesis. The products of one process become the reactants of the next and so on in the great "circle of life." 

  3. Answer: The double bilayer provides the spaces where protons can accumulate and flow through the inner mitochondrial membrane, or IMM. Without these spaces, the process of cellular respiration would cease altogether. 
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