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Cells

Cells

Cells Topics in Depth

Structures in All Eukaryotic Cells

We're going to start with eukaryotic cells even though they tend to be more complex than prokaryotic. But, there is a method to our madness: you are a eukaryote and have eukaryotic cells, so we tho...

Structures in Most Eukaryotic Cells

Most eukaryotes have these, but some don't.MitochondriaAll cells need energy to grow, reproduce, and function. Like the organisms they comprise, cells must "eat" in order to get the energy they nee...

Structures Only in Plant (and Other) Cells

Structures Only Found in Plant (and Some Algae and Fungus) CellsNow we move on to the fun stuff that you only wish you had in your cells. It's OK to be jealous.Cell WallLike the cell walls in bacte...

Structures Only in Animal Cells

It's time to discuss our very own special set of goods.CentriolesThe centriole is a small, barrel-shaped tube composed of protein located in the cytoplasm.Barrels of fun:The centriole's main functi...

Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function

The vast majority of cells on Earth are actually prokaryotic, so we are in the minority. Do you feel outnumbered?If it weren't so ugly, it would be kind of cute:There are two major kinds of prokary...

The Plasma Membrane

Cell Membrane Structure and FunctionAll biological membranes are made of two main components: Phosphorus, or phosphate groups (–H2PO4R, where R is a functional group)  Lipids  These com...

Nuclear Membranes

Another important membrane is the one surrounding the nucleus.How does it look different from the plasma membrane? We are glad you asked. This membrane is only found in eukaryotic cells (because on...

Mitochondrial Membranes

Mitochondria, like nuclei, have two phospholipid bilayers. The bilayer closest to the cytoplasm, or the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM, not like Om Nom Nom), has integral proteins called porins...

Chloroplast Membranes

Just like in mitochondria, the membranes of the chloroplast provide the basis for chloroplast function.Unlike mitochondria, chloroplasts actually have three phospholipid bilayers. And you thought a...

Membrane Transport

Up until now, we have talked a lot about the structure of different membranes found throughout, or around, the cell. We have also mentioned the fact that one very important function of any membrane...

Common Mistakes

Eukaryotic Cell Structure and FunctionDo plant cells have mitochondria?    Most cells use ATP as their main form of energy. Most eukaryotic cells, including plant cells, get their ATP fro...

Test Your Knowledge!

Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function QuestionsList three similarities and three differences between plant and animal cells.How does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) differ from the rough en...

Made From Trees

Offline ResourcesWhat is Life? A Guide to Biology by Jay Phelan (W.H. Freeman and Company, 2009).Cell Biology: A Short Course by Steven R. Bolsover (Wiley-Liss, 2003). Also viewable online through...

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