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Topics in Depth

The Theme of Test Your Knowledge! in Biotechnology

Questions

DNA Technology

1. Bacterial enzymes that recognize and cut at a particular DNA sequence are called
a. DNA ligases
b. Restriction enzymes
c. Restriction fragments
d. Cloning vectors
e. Plasmids

2. The enzyme that joins two pieces of DNA with sticky ends is called
a. DNA ligase
b. A restriction enzyme
c. A restriction fragment
d. A cloning vector
e. A plasmid

3. The technique that uses an electric current to allow for the uptake of DNA into the cell is called      .
a. Transfection
b. Digestion
c. DNA sequencing
d. Electroporation
e. Transduction

4. The process by which the order of DNA bases is determined is called      .
a. Transfection
b. Digestion
c. DNA sequencing
d. Electroporation
e. Transduction

5. DNA is attracted to the positive electrode used in electrophoresis because      .
a. The backbone of DNA is negatively charged
b. The backbone of DNA is positively charged
c. The backbone of DNA is neutral
d. The proteins surrounding the DNA are negatively charged
e. The proteins surrounding the DNA are positively charged

Gene Expression

1. You are working in the lab late one night (cue Monster Mash) and want to identify whether or not a particular DNA sequence or gene is present in your DNA sample. The technique you should use is a(n)      .
a. Southern blot
b. Northern blot
c. Western blot
d. Northwestern blot
e. Southwestern blot

2. The technique that uses antibodies to recognize a particular protein is called      .
a. Southern blotting
b. Northern blotting
c. Western blotting
d. DNA microarray
e. PCR

3. The technique that allows for the amplification of very small amounts of DNA is called      .
a. Southern blotting
b. Northern blotting
c. Western blotting
d. PCR
e. RT-PCR

4. Which of the following is the correct order of steps in PCR?
a. Extension, annealing, denaturation
b. Denaturation, extension, annealing
c. Annealing, denaturation, extension
d. Annealing, extension, denaturation
e. Denaturation, annealing, extension

5. This technique looks for the global change in gene expression between an experimental sample and a control.
a. Southern blot
b. Western blot
c. RT-PCR
d. DNA microarray
e. PCR

Gene Function

1. This technique intentionally introduces mutations into a gene of interest:
a. RNAi
b. Single nucleotide polymorphism
c. In situ hybridization
d. In vitro mutagenesis
e. Northern blotting

2. RNA interference permanently destroys the target mRNA.
a. True
b. False

3. Which of the following are used in RNAi?
a. Short double-stranded RNA
b. Long double-stranded DNA
c. Short single-stranded RNA
d. Short double-stranded DNA
e. Long double-stranded DNA

4. When introduced into a cell, siRNAs
a. Target DNA with the matching sequence for degradation
b. Target the protein with the same sequence for degradation
c. Target the mRNA with the same sequence for degradation
d. Target the rRNA with the same sequence for degradation
e. Both c and d are correct

5. A variation in one nucleotide that occurs in a small percentage of the population is called a(n)
a. Restriction fragment length polymorphism
b. PCR
c. RT_PCR
d. RNAi
e. Single nucleotide polymorphism

Organism Cloning

1. Pluripotent stem cells can become
a. Any type of cell
b. Only white blood cells
c. Dedifferentiated cells
d. Only red blood cells
e. Only heart cells

2. Stem cells are useful because they are not differentiated
a. True
b. False

3. A cell that is specialized to function as a particular type of cell is considered to be
a. Dedifferentiated
b. Differentiated
c. Pluripotent
d. Induced
e. Embryonic stem cells

4. In the cloning of animals, the       of a differentiated cell is transferred to an enucleated egg cell.
a. Nucleolus
b. Cytoplasm
c. Endoplasmic reticulum
d. Nucleus
e. Ribosome

5. The organisms involved in the cloning of an animal include
a. Nucleus donor and egg donor
b. Nucleus donor, egg donor and surrogate
c. Protein donor and RNA donor
d. Endoplasmic reticulum donor, egg donor and surrogate
e. Egg donor, sperm donor and surrogate

Forensic Applications

1. The chances of two people having the same blood type are so slim, therefore, blood typing is more sensitive than DNA analysis.
a. True
b. False

2. The first technique(s) used to analyze DNA evidence were
a. DNA microarrays
b. DNA sequencing
c. Gene cloning and electroporation
d. In situ hybridization
e. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms and Southern blotting

3. One of the advantages of using DNA as evidence is that only a very small amount of starting material is needed.
a. True
b. False

4. One of the reasons DNA analysis is so powerful in solving crimes is that
a. The analysis can be performed quickly
b. The analysis is inexpensive
c. An individual's DNA is unique and unlikely to match anyone else's (unless they are a twin).
d. It is easiest to collect a DNA sample
e. A,B, and D are correct

5. Short tandem repeats are
a. Repetitive amino acid sequences that are highly variable
b. Repetitive sequences of DNA that are highly variable
c. Repetitive sequences of mRNA that are highly variable
d. A DNA mutation that results in a two nucleotide repeat
e. An mRNA mutation that results in a two nucleotide repeat

Medical Applications

1. One of the methods used to detect RNA viruses is
a. PCR
b. RT-PCR
c. DNA microarrays
d. RNAi
e. Western blots

2. If the gene sequence for a particular disease or condition is known,       can be used to detect whether or not an individual carries that gene.
a. PCR
b. RT-PCR
c. DNA microarrays
d. RNAi
e. Western blots

3. How are genes usually delivered to cells in gene therapy?
a. They are surrounded by proteins
b. The DNA is directly injected into the cells
c. The gene is cloned into a viral vector
d. They are surrounded by lipids
e. They are delivered by electroporation

4. Which of the following are not potential complications of gene therapy?
a. The effects of gene therapy may not be long lasting
b. It is difficult to clone a gene into a viral vector
c. Viral vectors may be toxic to humans
d. Targeting gene therapy to certain cells proves to be challenging
e. Many conditions are the result of several genes and currently gene therapy can only target a single gene

5. Organisms that express an altered gene or gene from another species are called      .
a. Transgenic animals
b. Cloned animals
c. Hybrid animals
d. Chimeric animals
e. Both c and d are true

Answers

DNA Technology

1b, 2a, 3d, 4c, 5a

Gene Expression

1a, 2c, 3d, 4e, 5d

Gene Function

1d, 2b, 3a, 4c, 5e

Organism Cloning

1a, 2T, 3b, 4d, 5b

Forensic Applications

1F (There are only a few blood types, therefore, many individuals share the same blood type.), 2e, 3T, 4c, 5b

Medical Applications

1b, 2a, 3c, 4b, 5a

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