There is one great university that teaches every carpenter—it’s called HandsOn U.
“Do or do not. There is no try.”—Yoda.
But there are subdivisions as well.
You can become a Journeyman Carpenter by taking a test and undergoing a few years of apprenticeship. Beyond that level is the Master Carpenter—more expertise, more detailed test, more years of apprenticeship. You learn everything from how to pick out wood that isn’t naughty (or knotty) to how to bid for a job so that all of your costs and risks are considered.
But the biggest qual is just knowing what you’re doing. And for a good general contractor who might hire you for a gig, it’ll take five minutes of him watching you to figure out that you do or don’t know your shizzel from your shim.