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Scientists are a smart lot, and Oceanographers are no exception. Bare minimum requirement for getting your feet wet is a bachelor's degree in something ocean-y. More likely, you will be earning a master's degree in some sort of specialty like Biological, Geological, or Physical Oceanography. 

Finally, for serious ocean creds and the ability to conduct top-level research, head government agencies, or teach at the college or university level, a PhD is going to be necessary.