The only real qualification here is the ability to put the little ball into the little hole from very far away. Accomplish that feat in fewer strokes than anyone else and it won't matter how much school you've had or how much you comprehend about the real world—you'll be able to make it as a golfer.
The only problem is it's a bit difficult to be better at this sport than anyone else. If you win occasionally, you could be in the top 200 or so golfers in the world, but might still have trouble making ends meet. The smart thing to do is to go to college, become an expert in something other than how to strike the tee in order to reduce topspin, and then let the ball drop where it may.
Some golfers enroll in a PGM (Professional Golf Management) program at school. It's a business degree that'll help prepare you to make a solid living (should the golf thing not work out) and at the same time qualify you as a PGA professional.
It can start you off on the right foot if you're talented enough to succeed—just don't start with your right foot too far forward or you're going to have a hard time getting rid of that nasty slice.