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Facts

Freedom Summer, Mississippi Freedom Summer

This term refers to the summer of 1964, during which young college-age recruits, primarily black activists and some white volunteers, traveled to Mississippi in order to help register black Mississippians to vote. Their efforts were met with severe, often violent, resistance from white citizens including members of the Mississippi Ku Klux Klan. Three young volunteers—James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner—were killed in Mississippi during the first weeks of action.

Moynihan Report

In 1965, Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan released a controversial report on the "total breakdown" of black society. In it he concluded that the roots of the problems faced by black families lay in the legacy of slavery, growing urbanization, racial discrimination in employment and education, and a tradition of matriarchy. The report, nicknamed the "Moynihan Report," has sparked much debate among historians and sociologists.

Black Power

A term originally coined coined by SNCC chairman Stokely Carmichael in a speech delivered in June 1966 in Greenwood, Mississippi, and later popularized by militant civil rights organizations like the Black Panthers. Black Power came to be recognized as a specific wave of the Civil Rights Movement, one that emphasized race pride and black autonomy over integration with white society.

Affirmative Action

A term for policies that increase access to education and employment for historically underrepresented minorities, including blacks, Latinos, Asians, women, and disabled persons. The first federal agency to adopt these policies was established when Republican President Richard Nixon issued Executive Order 11478 in 1969. Supporters of these policies argue that they help address centuries of discrimination, while opponents say that affirmative action policies create an unfair advantage for some groups, undermine the achievements of minorities, and perpetuate racial and class tensions. It is an issue that remains hotly debated today.

Radical Reconstruction, Reconstruction

Also referred to as Congressional Reconstruction, this phase of post-Civil War Reconstruction began in 1867 when the U.S. Congress, dominated by Radical Republicans, passed a number of laws called the Reconstruction Acts. These acts mandated a number of major reforms to southern state governments, including the enfranchisement of all black men and the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment, which secured equal protection rights for former slaves. Radical Reconstruction officially ended with the Compromise of 1877, in which the white South agreed to accept the Republican candidate for president in return for the withdrawal of all federal troops from the South. By the end of it all, the nation would be forever transformed, and the legacy of this era would be debated for over a century, until the modern civil rights movement set out to finish what Radical Reconstruction had begun.

Also referred to as Congressional Reconstruction, this phase of post-Civil War Reconstruction began in 1867 when the U.S. Congress, dominated by Radical Republicans, passed a number of laws called the Reconstruction Acts. These acts mandated a number of major reforms to southern state governments, including the enfranchisement of all black men and the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment, which secured equal protection rights for former slaves. Radical Reconstruction officially ended with the Compromise of 1877, in which the white South agreed to accept the Republican candidate for president in return for the withdrawal of all federal troops from the South. By the end of it all, the nation would be forever transformed, and the legacy of this era would be debated for over a century, until the modern civil rights movement set out to finish what Radical Reconstruction had begun.

Proposition 14, Prop 14

California Proposition 14 was an amendment to the California state constitution proposed by citizens of the state who wanted to nullify the Rumford Fair Housing Act, a 1963 law that forbade property owners from denying housing to someone on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, sex, marital status, or physical handicap.

Jim Crow

Jim Crow laws restricted blacks from entering many public and private facilities designated for whites, including parks, libraries, schools, restaurants, bathrooms, markets, bars, pools, and even brothels. After the 1870s, Jim Crow restrictions were most prevalent in the South, where nearly 90% of the nation's black population lived. However, before the American Civil War, Jim Crow laws had existed outside the South in cities such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.

The term "Jim Crow" was first coined in the 1830s by American audiences who watched Thomas "Daddy" Rice, a white man performing in blackface, portray a comic black slave who danced and sang with glee. By the early 1900s, the term had come to describe the institutionalized system of segregation that kept blacks and whites separate in schools, restaurants, theaters, bathrooms, pools, buses, bars, markets, libraries and all other public facilities in the American South.

The term "Jim Crow" was first coined in the 1830s by American audiences who watched Thomas "Daddy" Rice, a white man performing in black face, portray a comic black slave who danced and sang with glee. By the early 1900s, the term had come to describe the institutionalized system of segregation that kept blacks and whites separate in schools, restaurants, theaters, bathrooms, pools, buses, bars, markets, libraries and all other public facilities in the American South.

A minstrel-show character first introduced by white actor Thomas "Daddy" Rice in the 1830s. The name of this buffoonish, black caricature became synonymous with racial segregation in the post-Civil War era.

The term "Jim Crow" was first coined in the 1830s by American audiences who watched Thomas "Daddy" Rice, a white man performing in blackface, portray a comic black slave who danced and sang with glee. By the early 1900s, the term had come to describe the institutionalized system of segregation that kept blacks and whites separate in schools, restaurants, theaters, bathrooms, pools, buses, bars, markets, libraries and all other public facilities in the American South.
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