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Civil Rights Movement: Desegregation

Civil Rights Movement: Desegregation

 Table of Contents

Civil Rights Movement: Desegregation Terms

Freedom Rides, Freedom Riders, Freedom Rider

In 1961 the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) organized black and white volunteers to travel together on buses and trains into the Deep South in order to challenge segregation laws. In response to these "Freedom Rides," the Interstate Commerce Commission ordered the desegregation of all interstate buses, trains, and terminals in September 1961.

Jim Crow

Jim Crow laws restricted blacks from entering many public and private facilities designated for whites, including parks, libraries, schools, restaurants, bathrooms, markets, bars, pools, and even brothels. After the 1870s, Jim Crow restrictions were most prevalent in the South, where nearly 90% of the nation's black population lived. However, before the American Civil War, Jim Crow laws had existed outside the South in cities such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.

The term "Jim Crow" was first coined in the 1830s by American audiences who watched Thomas "Daddy" Rice, a white man performing in blackface, portray a comic black slave who danced and sang with glee. By the early 1900s, the term had come to describe the institutionalized system of segregation that kept blacks and whites separate in schools, restaurants, theaters, bathrooms, pools, buses, bars, markets, libraries and all other public facilities in the American South.

The term "Jim Crow" was first coined in the 1830s by American audiences who watched Thomas "Daddy" Rice, a white man performing in black face, portray a comic black slave who danced and sang with glee. By the early 1900s, the term had come to describe the institutionalized system of segregation that kept blacks and whites separate in schools, restaurants, theaters, bathrooms, pools, buses, bars, markets, libraries and all other public facilities in the American South.

A minstrel-show character first introduced by white actor Thomas "Daddy" Rice in the 1830s. The name of this buffoonish, black caricature became synonymous with racial segregation in the post-Civil War era.

The term "Jim Crow" was first coined in the 1830s by American audiences who watched Thomas "Daddy" Rice, a white man performing in blackface, portray a comic black slave who danced and sang with glee. By the early 1900s, the term had come to describe the institutionalized system of segregation that kept blacks and whites separate in schools, restaurants, theaters, bathrooms, pools, buses, bars, markets, libraries and all other public facilities in the American South.

"Double V"

Black leaders during the Second World War adopted this phrase to describe the specific type of battle African Americans would have to fight, a battle on two fronts—for "victory over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad."

Black leaders during the Second World War adopted this phrase to describe the specific type of battle African-Americans would have to fight, a battle on two fronts—for "victory over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad."

"white Death", "white Terror"

African-American writer Richard Wright coined the term "white death," or "white terror," to refer to the white-on-black crime that haunted black communities, particularly in the South through the mid-1900s, and prevented many hard-working citizens from voting, owning property, or resisting segregation laws.

African-American writer Richard Wright coined the term "white death," or "white terror," to refer to the white-on-black crime that haunted black communities, particularly in the South through the mid-twentieth century, and prevented many hard-working citizens from voting, owning property, and resisting segregation laws.

Emancipation Proclamation

During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves in areas under Confederate control after 1 January 1863.

Confederacy, Confederate States Of America

Between 1861 and 1865, the Confederacy, or the Confederate States of America, was comprised of eleven southern states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. These states seceded from the United States in 1861 for a number of reasons, including states' rights regarding slave ownership. Their attempted secession sparked the American Civil War.

New Deal

A set of experimental government programs and reforms instituted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s. The New Deal, through federal spending, price regulations, job placement, the expansion of unions, greater access to home loans, and social security for the elderly and disabled, was meant to bring relief to a population reeling from the Great Depression. It did transform the nation in some significant ways but did not succeed in ending the Great Depression.

A set of experimental government programs and reforms instituted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s. The New Deal, through federal spending, price regulations, job placement, the expansion of unions, greater access to home loans, and social security for the elderly and disabled, was meant to bring relief to a population reeling from the Great Depression. It did transform the nation in some significant ways but did not succeed in ending the Great Depression.

A set of government programs adopted during the Great Depression under the leadership of President Franklin Roosevelt. Premised on the belief that economic conditions demanded far more aggressive government action, the New Deal moved the government beyond regulation and oversight into the role of job creator and income insurer. The government provided direct relief to the needy under the Federal Emergency Relief Act. It created jobs for the unemployed under the Public Works Administration, Works Progress Administration, and Civilian Conservation Corps. Agricultural prices were manipulated through the Agricultural Adjustment Act. Workers rights to organize into unions were protected under the Wagner Act. Through the Tennessee Valley Authority, the federal government set about re-constructing the economy of an entire region. And through the creation of Social Security, Congress created a federal pension plan for seniors.

Poll Tax, Poll Taxes

A tax that must be paid in order to be eligible to vote. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many southern states required a poll tax for voter registration, effectively disenfranchising black citizens who often could not afford the fee.

Proposition 14, Prop 14

California Proposition 14 was an amendment to the California state constitution proposed by citizens of the state who wanted to nullify the Rumford Fair Housing Act, a 1963 law that forbade property owners from denying housing to someone on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, sex, marital status, or physical handicap.

Radical Reconstruction, Reconstruction

Also referred to as Congressional Reconstruction, this phase of post-Civil War Reconstruction began in 1867 when the U.S. Congress, dominated by Radical Republicans, passed a number of laws called the Reconstruction Acts. These acts mandated a number of major reforms to southern state governments, including the enfranchisement of all black men and the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment, which secured equal protection rights for former slaves. Radical Reconstruction officially ended with the Compromise of 1877, in which the white South agreed to accept the Republican candidate for president in return for the withdrawal of all federal troops from the South. By the end of it all, the nation would be forever transformed, and the legacy of this era would be debated for over a century, until the modern civil rights movement set out to finish what Radical Reconstruction had begun.

Also referred to as Congressional Reconstruction, this phase of post-Civil War Reconstruction began in 1867 when the U.S. Congress, dominated by Radical Republicans, passed a number of laws called the Reconstruction Acts. These acts mandated a number of major reforms to southern state governments, including the enfranchisement of all black men and the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment, which secured equal protection rights for former slaves. Radical Reconstruction officially ended with the Compromise of 1877, in which the white South agreed to accept the Republican candidate for president in return for the withdrawal of all federal troops from the South. By the end of it all, the nation would be forever transformed, and the legacy of this era would be debated for over a century, until the modern civil rights movement set out to finish what Radical Reconstruction had begun.

Sit-ins, Play-ins, Swim-ins, Bowl-ins, Read-ins, Sit-in

Young civil rights activists, beginning in 1960, adopted these tactics to demand access to segregated facilities throughout the South. They literally sat in seats at lunch counters restricted for whites, played in segregated public parks, swam in segregated public pools, bowled in Jim Crow bowling alleys, and read in Jim Crow public libraries.

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