Die Heuning Pot Literature Guide
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Facts

First major conflict on American soil in which blacks served as soldiers: King William's War, 1689-1697
Last major conflict, prior to 1948, in which blacks and whites fought in integrated units: American Revolution, 1775-1783
First major conflict, since the the American Revolution, in which blacks and whites fought in integrated units: Korean War, 1950-195329

Length of jury deliberation in the Emmett Till murder trial in September 1955: 65 minutes
In a post-trial interview, one juror told a reporter that they would have delivered the verdict earlier had they not taken a break to drink soda-pop.30

Ratio of black riders to white riders on Montgomery, Alabama's public buses in 1955, prior to the boycott: 5 to 131
Number of days the Montgomery Bus Boycott lasted: 38132

First year, since earliest known records, in which no lynchings were reported in the United States: 1952
Number of lynchings reported in 1953: 0
Number of lynchings reported in 1954: 0
Number of lynchings reported in 1955: 8 (all victims black)33

Before 1950, several southern states provided scholarships for black students to enroll in colleges outside their borders, usually in northern states, rather than allow them to attend all-white schools in their region.34

Year in which the first lawsuit was filed challenging school segregation in the United States: 1848 (In Roberts v. Boston, Benjamin Roberts filed suit against the Boston public school system for refusing to allow his five-year-old daughter to enroll in a local all-white elementary school. Stating that"prejudice is not created by law, and probably cannot be changed by law," the Massachusetts Supreme Court dismissed the case, thereby upholding school segregation. The U.S. Supreme Court would later cite this decision in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, which established the doctrine of "separate but equal.")35

Number of individual cases covered by the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education: 5
These five class action lawsuits calling for a variety of challenges to school segregation originated in Delaware, Kansas, South Carolina, Washingon, D.C., and Virginia. Oliver Brown was one of nearly 200 plaintiffs from these five states. 36

In a Gallup Pool taken in late 1958, Americans selected, as one of their top "ten most admired men," Orval Faubus, the Arkansas governor who in 1957 deployed National Guardsmen to block court-ordered school integration.37

In the early 1960s, the New Orleans chapter of the White Citizens' Council distributed a handbill imploring white parents to boycott "Negro records." "The screaming, idiotic words, and savage music of these records," the handbill read, "are undermining the morals of our white youth in America."38

The White Citizens' Council, an organization created in 1954 to oppose desegregation, still exists today as the national Council of Conservative Citizens. Its website states that it is still committed to opposing "all efforts to mix the races of mankind."39

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