Anne Hutchinson

.       Controversial dissenter from dominant Puritan teachings in early Mass.

.       Believed the individual's relationship to God was paramount, authority of church not needed

.       Declared a heretic by Puritan leaders, driven out of Massachusetts to Rhode Island, 1637

.       Some historians regard her as an early feminist figure, though this is debatable


Cotton Mather

.       Prominent Boston Puritan clergyman; son of Increase Mather, also a prominent Puritan minister

.       Wrote Magnalia Christi Americana, an ecclesiastical history of New England, 1702

.       Fascinated by both mysticism and science; presided over witchcraft trials but also oversaw scientific inoculations against smallpox


King Philip (a.k.a. Metacom)

.       Wampanoag chief, led Indian alliance against New England settlers in so-called King Philip's War, 1675

.       20,000 whites and Indians killed in bloody conflict; proportionate to size of population, this was deadliest war in American history

.       Indians were defeated, Metacom quartered and beheaded



.       Native American from Pawtuxet tribe

.       Captured by English to be sold into slavery, learned English before being freed in 1619

.       Taught Puritans how to grow maize and to fish, allowing them to survive first winter in America, 1621

.       Died of smallpox, 1622


Roger Williams

.       Dissident Puritan clergyman and founder of Rhode Island

.       Banished from Massachusetts for "heretical" religious views, 1635

.       Believed in complete separation of church and state


John Winthrop

.       Most powerful early Puritan leader; first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony

.       Delivered famous sermon describing America as a "city upon a hill," 1630

.       Exiled Anne Hutchinson from Massachusetts





1620 Landing of Mayflower at Plymouth

.       Puritans established first English settlement in New England at Plymouth Plantation, near Cape Cod

.       Survived brutal first winter only with help of Indians, who taught agricultural techniques


1630 Massachusetts Bay Co. Founded

.       Led by John Winthrop, well-organized colony had full charter from British government

.       Grew to 1,000 people by end of first year

.       Massachusetts Bay colony eventually absorbed older Plymouth colony


1636 Providence Founded

.       Rhode Island settlement founded by Massachusetts exile Roger Williams

.       Rhode Island grew as refuge for religious dissenters


1637 Pequot War

.       English colonists and Narragansett allies attacked rival Pequot Indians

.       Burned Pequot fort with 400 men, women, children inside

.       Demonstrated Puritan potential for violence against Indians


1662 Halfway Covenant

.       Boston ministers declared children of church members could have "halfway" membership in church, which previously required an individual conversion experience

.       Second-generation Puritans who lacked a conversion experience could be baptized but could not vote or take communion

.       A concession by Puritan leaders to their own waning power in the face of secularizing forces


1675 King Philip's War

.       Intense yearlong conflict between Puritans and Wampanoag Indians

.       Killed 20,000 people, almost wiping out Wampanoags and setting back colonization by a decade

.       Half of all Puritan towns hit by Indian raids

.       Wampanoag chief Metacom (a.k.a. King Philip) killed in 1676, family sold into slavery

.       Indians increasingly seen as "bloodthirsty savages" by Puritans; their defeat became a religious duty





Pequot Indians

.       Went to war against Puritans, 1637

.       Vast majority of tribe burned to death, the rest sold into slavery


Wampanoag Indians

.       Led by Metacom (a.k.a. King Philip)

.       Long friendly toward English, but relations deteriorated into full-fledged war against Puritans, 1675

.       Defeat in war led to decline of tribe


Non-Separatist Puritans

.       Sect led by John Winthrop; formed Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630

.       Fled increasing persecution under King Charles I of England

.       Believed Anglican Church was too similar to Catholic Church but that it could be reformed from within


Separatist Puritans

.       Sect led by William Bradford; founded Plymouth Plantation, first English settlement in New England, in 1620

.       Believed Anglican Church was beyond reform, wanted to form new civilization on edge of wilderness

.       Like Non-Separatists, believed firmly in predestination and communal salvation

.       Like Non-Separatists, splintered and formed new towns






.       Puritan and Calvinist theological tenet declared that an individual's salvation or damnation was predetermined by God

.       Held that good acts could not change whether or not an individual would be saved, but could nonetheless be an indication of whether a person has been saved or not


"Bloodthirsty Savages"

.       Before King Philip's War, Indians were seen in ambiguous light, neither good nor evil

.       After war, they were seen as inherently evil and bent on destruction of Puritans

.       Destruction of Indians was then considered part of Puritan compact with God


Community of Saints

.       Full membership in Puritan church was highly restricted

.       Members had to demonstrate a conversion experience

.       Only those who joined the "community of saints" through full membership in a church would actually be saved





Boston, Massachusetts

.       Primary settlement and soon largest city and capital of Massachusetts Bay Colony


Plymouth Plantation, Massachusetts

.       Location of first Puritan settlement in New England

.       Later absorbed into larger Massachusetts Bay Colony


Providence, Rhode Island

.      Founded by religious dissenters expelled from Massachusetts Puritan leaders