Edmund Andros

.       Unpopular British governor of New England

.       Attempted to enforce King James II's efforts to reduce colonial authority and force compliance with Navigation Acts

.       Andros was seized by colonists and sent back to England during Glorious Revolution, 1689


Jonathan Edwards

.       American Congregational minister, major figure in First Great Awakening

.       Condemned increasing "licentiousness" (like drinking) among the young

.       Emphasized God's wrath in sermons such as "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," 1741


King George III

.       King of England from 1760-1780; ineffective British ruler during crucial years before and during American Revolution

.       Poor choices in appointment of ministers produced controversial taxes like Stamp Act and Townshend Duties

George Whitefield

.       Charismatic English Protestant minister, arrived in America in 1739

.       Led major religious revival by preaching throughout the colonies; attained near-celebrity status

.       Portrayed God as a more merciful figure than did J. Edwards

.       Rejected doctrine of predestination, emphasizing individual salvation




1651 First Navigation Acts Passed

.       Mercantilist laws passed by Parliament to ensure England favorable terms of trade with colonies

.       Required Americans to sell raw goods only to England, and to buy European manufactures only from England

.       Widely evaded and ignored in practice by American colonists



1689 Glorious Revolution

.       Peaceful revolution in London ended with overthrow of unpopular King James II, installation of Dutch royal William of Orange as King William II of England

.       Marked end of absolute monarchy in England

.       News of revolution prompted revolts against royal authorities in colonies, especially Mass.


1691 Salem Witch Trials

.       Teenage girls in Salem, Mass., accused two Puritan women and a slave of witchcraft

.       Witchcraft hysteria overwhelmed the village and accusations multiplied, mostly targeting women

.       150 people eventually accused, at least 25 executed


1735 First Great Awakening in


.       Charismatic ministers led revival that popularized religion as a more direct emotional experience

.       Weakened traditional Puritan teachings, created polarized religious climate pitting "New Lights" against "Old Lights"


1763 End of Seven Years' War (a.k.a.

French and Indian War)

.       British defeated France, gaining control of Canada and Great Lakes region

.       At war's end, British government imposed Proclamation Line to limit the westward expansion of colonial settlement beyond Appalachian Mountains, angering colonists

.       British efforts to recoup costs of war through new taxes led to conflicts with colonists




Congregationalist Church

.       Dominant church of colonial New England

.       Included both Separatist and Non-Separatist Puritans, along with revivalist ministers

.       Excluded Catholics, Baptists, and Quakers


"New Lights"

.       New, revivalist Christians led by J. Edwards and G. Whitefield

.       Founded College of New Jersey (a.k.a. Princeton University)

.        Main players in First Great Awakening


"Old Lights"

.       Traditional Congregationalists

.       Opposed emotional revivalist Christianity of First Great Awakening

.       Feared erosion of their authority in New England society



.       Dissenting Christian sect, dominant in colonial Pennsylvania but officially persecuted in both England and Massachusetts though 1689

.       Focused worship on individual conscience or "inner light"





.       Religious experience motivated by emotional connection

.       Inherently individualistic, thus attacked established power structure in New England

.       J. Edwards, G. Whitefield were leading revivalist ministers



.       Puritans believed that Satan was a real presence in the world, lurking behind corners to lure people into sin

.       Rampant accusations of witchcraft were thus considered plausible, with scant evidence

.       Partly due to pressures of dramatic social change, accusations—usually targeting women—became more frequent in late 17th C.




Salem Village, Mass.

.       Site of infamous witchcraft trials, 1691