Napoleon Bonaparte

.       Emperor of France

.       Lost sugar colony Saint-Domingue (Haiti) to slave rebellion

.       Had expected Louisiana Territory to supply food to Saint-Domingue

.       When he lost Haiti, sold Louisiana Territory to U.S. for a low price


William Clark

.       Co-leader of Corps of Discovery

.       Journeyed across continent, 1804-1806

.       Emotionally steady companion for Meriwether Lewis


Meriwether Lewis

.       Co-leader of the Corps of Discovery

.       Journeyed across continent, 1804-1806

.       More erratic and brilliant than William Clark

.       Skilled in navigation, diplomacy, botany, geology

.       Made governor of Louisiana Territory but committed suicide in 1809


Robert Livingston

.       New York political leader

.       Thomas Jefferson's ambassador to France

.       Negotiated Louisiana Purchase in 1803


Thomas Jefferson

.       Virginia planter and third president of the United States

.       Drafted Declaration of Independence

.       Oversaw Louisiana Purchase and Lewis & Clark Expedition


Toussaint Louverture

.       Ex-slave who became ruler of Haiti during revolution

.       Captured by French, died of pneumonia in captivity

.       Made possible Louisiana Purchase by taking Haiti from French control and eliminating Napoleon's interest in New World empire



.       Shoshone Indian woman

.       Translator for Lewis and Clark

.       Her relation to Shoshone chief allowed Corps to obtain horses, enabling them to cross Rockies



1801 Toussaint Louverture Proclaimed Governor-General of Saint-Domingue

.       Rebel slave leader declared loyalty to France but claimed control over Haiti

.       Napoleon attempted but failed to restore slavery a year later; Louverture deported in 1802

.       Haitian forces defeated French army to win independence, 1804


1803 Louisiana Purchase

.       Livingston and James Monroe concluded negotiations with French

.       U.S. representatives had only been authorized to purchase New Orleans, but in wake of Haitian debacle Napoleon offered entire territory for 3 cents an acre

.       Purchase doubled size of US

.       Thomas Jefferson thought it was unconstitutional to go through with the purchase, but proceeded anyway


1803 Launch of Lewis & Clark Expedition

.       Overland journey from U.S. to Pacific coast

.       Explorers ordered to map travel routes, establish relations with Indians, document flora and fauna


1804 Lewis & Clark Winter at Fort Mandan

.       Made camp near villages of 4,500 friendly Indians on banks of Missouri River

.       Temperature reached -45 degrees in December


1805 Lewis & Clark Reach Pacific Ocean

.       Traveled last leg of journey down Columbia River in canoes provided by Nez Perce Indians

.       Spent rainy winter encamped at Fort Clatsop at mouth of Columbia River





Corps of Discovery

.       Official name of Lewis & Clark's expedition

.       Composed of 35 enlisted men, five civilians, one dog

.       Resorted to violence against Indians only once, when two thieves were shot

.       Journey a major scientific and diplomatic success


Shoshone Indians

.       Indian tribe based near Rockies

.       Renowned for horsemanship

.       Provided Lewis & Clark with horses needed to cross Rockies, thanks to presence of Sacagawea (a Shoshone woman) on the expedition


Nez Perce Indians

.       Provided Lewis & Clark canoes to reach mouth of Columbia River





.       Exceptionally valuable commodity during 18th century

.       Made West Indies colonies producers of great wealth for European empire




Louisiana Territory

.       Vast territory in center of North American continent, stretching from modern state of Louisiana to Montana

.       Planned by Napoleon to serve as source of food and supplies to slaves on Haitian sugar plantations

.       After Haitian Revolution, Napoleon saw Louisiana as worthless and sold it to U.S. for 3 cents an acre

.       Doubled the size of U.S. at time of Louisiana Purchase


Saint-Domingue (Haiti)

.       French sugar colony in the Caribbean

.       Most valuable colony in the world at time of 1791 slave rebellion

.       Won independence after 13 years of fighting

.       Loss of Haiti made France abandon Louisiana Territory