Thomas Jefferson

.       Virginia planter and third president of the United States

.       Drafted Declaration of Independence

.       Oversaw Louisiana Purchase and Lewis & Clark Expedition


James Madison

.       Virginian most responsible for designing the Constitution

.       Nationalist, helped write Federalist Papers

.       Despite initial misgivings, helped pass Bill of Rights


Sally Hemings

.       Slave mistress of Thomas Jefferson

.       Gave birth to six children, some or all of them almost certainly fathered by Jefferson

.       Many of the children were freed in Jefferson's will, though Sally wasn't


Aaron Burr

.       Jefferson's running mate in 1800; became vice president after electoral vote tie

.       Killed political rival Alexander Hamilton in duel, 1804

.       Later plotted to cause southwestern states to secede; accused of treason


Alexander Hamilton

.       First Secretary of the Treasury

.       Leading Federalist; believed in strong central government and wrote many of the Federalist Papers

.       Wanted proportional representation in both houses of Congress

.       Considered founder of American financial system

.       Killed in duel with Aaron Burr, 1804


John Marshall

.       First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

.       Part of "XYZ" affair delegation, 1787-1788

.       Established principle of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison




1800 Presidential Election

.       Through a major strategic oversight, Jefferson tied in electoral college with Aaron Burr, his running mate, throwing election into House of Representatives

.       Federalists in House schemed to throw election to Burr, whom they regarded as a lesser opponent

.       Hamilton threw support behind Jefferson despite political disagreements because he thought Burr lacked integrity


1803 Marbury v. Madison

.       Supreme Court decision in case involving executive appointments established principle of judicial review


1803 Louisiana Purchase

.       Robert Livingston and James Monroe concluded negotiations with French

.       U.S. representatives had only been authorized to purchase New Orleans, but in wake of Haitian debacle Napoleon offered entire territory for 3 cents an acre

.       Purchase doubled size of US

.       Thomas Jefferson thought it was unconstitutional to go through with the purchase, but proceeded anyway


1803 Launch of Lewis & Clark Expedition

.       Overland journey from U.S. to Pacific coast

.       Explorers ordered to map travel routes, establish relations with Indians, document flora and fauna


1807 Embargo Act

.       Jefferson hoped to pressure Britain and end harassment of American shipping by cutting off all trade

.       Made New Englanders furious; they began shipping up Hudson to Canada

.       Congress ended embargo the moment Jefferson left office








Radical Whigs

.       British parliamentary faction that despised bribery and patronage

.       Suggested that arbitrary power of monarch and ministers infringed on personal liberty

.       Writings influenced American colonists—especially Jefferson—as they moved toward independence



(a.k.a. Democratic-Republicans)

.       Party believed in small, local government and low taxes

.       Feared centralized power and tyranny from afar

.       Strongest in the South (Virginia especially) and West

.       Opposed Federalists in early partisan political battles

.       Led by Thomas Jefferson

.       Different from modern Republican Party


Midnight Judges

.       Judges appointed by John Adams during last hours in office

.       Jefferson told Madison to refuse to appoint them

.       Case went to court in Marbury v. Madison





Judicial Review

.       Principle that Supreme Court is ultimate authority on whether a law is constitutional

.       First established by Marshall's opinion in Marbury v. Madison

.       Now seen as essential component in American balance of powers


Natural Aristocracy

.       In Jefferson's view, the deserving rulers in world history

.       Those who earned their positions through their own talents, not inherited wealth or rank

.       Jefferson believed state should encourage the cultivation of these talents through education



.       Ideology of government in which authority derives from consent of the people

.       Success of system depended on virtue of its citizens

.       Republican citizens were property-owners willing to subordinate their own interests to that of the community as a whole


Jefferson on Race

.       Ranked races by "real distinctions" of color, smell, hair, and physique

.       Believed slavery was wrong, but owned slaves anyway and fathered children by slave mistress Sally Hemings. 


Jefferson on History

.       Did not believe in an active God

.       Did believe that world followed a rational course

.       Believed that common people were most moral people, had generally correct political intuitions





Monticello, Virginia

.       Jefferson's plantation estate


Louisiana Territory

.       Huge area at center of American continent

.       Consisted of all land that drained into Mississippi River from the west; extended from New Orleans to the crest of the Rocky Mountains in modern-day Montana

Controlled by France until 1803, when Jefferson bought it for 3 cents an acre