Susan B. Anthony

.       Major leader of American suffrage movement 

.       Advocate of abolition and temperance

.       Opposed giving suffrage to freedmen without also giving it to women

.       Arrested for trying to vote, 1872


Frederick Douglass

.       Runaway slave who became prominent abolitionist

.       Leading figure in the American Anti-Slavery Society, founder of abolitionist publication North Star

.       Also advocated for women's rights


Rutherford B. Hayes

.       Republican President of the United States

.       Fought in Civil War; supported Radical Reconstruction while in Congress

.       Elected as part of the Compromise of 1877

.       Withdrew federal troops from South (thus ending Reconstruction), 1877


Oliver O. Howard

.       Chief commissioner of Freedmen's Bureau

.       Founded Howard University

.       Union general during Civil War

.       Offered education and opportunities to blacks as head of Freedmen's Bureau, but undercut by President Andrew Johnson


Andrew Johnson

.       Democratic Tennessee Governor, then Vice President and President of U.S.

.       Selected as Lincoln's Vice President despite belonging to opposite party

.       After Lincoln's assassination, oversaw failed Presidential Reconstruction, offering lenient terms to defeated southerners

.       Impeached by House of Representatives, 1868


Abraham Lincoln

.       First-ever Republican President of the United States, elected in 1860

.       Oversaw Union victory in Civil War; issued Emancipation Proclamation in 1863

.       Barely began Presidential Reconstruction before being assassinated, 1865


William T. Sherman

.       Union general in Civil War

.       Offered forty acres and a mule to freed slaves, before orders were countermanded by President Andrew Johnson


Thaddeus Stevens

.       Pennsylvania representative, leader of Radical Republicans in Congress

.       Felt both Lincoln and Johnson were not radical enough in Reconstruction reforms

.       Pushed forward Civil Rights Act and Fourteenth Amendment

.       Committed to racial equality in political rights





1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and


.       Lincoln issued standards by which rebel states could be readmitted to the Union following the Civil War

.       So-called 10 Percent Plan required 10% of population to take "ironclad oath" of loyalty before state could re-enter the Union


1865 Sherman's Special Field Order 15

.       William T. Sherman, commanding Union army occupying Deep South, issued proclamation seizing Confederate properties and distributing land in forty-acre plots to freedmen in Georgia and South Carolina

.       Eventually countermanded by President Johnson


1865 Freedmen's Bureau Established

.       Provided educational assistance and other opportunities for freed blacks

.       Congress established Freedmen's Savings Bank in the same year


1865 Lincoln Assassination

.       President Lincoln killed by southerner John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.

.       Vice President Andrew Johnson became President, took control over Reconstruction


1865 Thirteenth Amendment

.       Declared slavery unconstitutional


1865 Ku Klux Klan Founded

.       White supremacist terror organization founded by group of Confederate Army veterans

.       Served as paramilitary wing of Democratic Party in South, ensuring white power through violence and intimidation


1868 Fourteenth Amendment

.       Guaranteed "equal protection of the laws" to all citizens, regardless of race


1870 Fifteenth Amendment

.       Guaranteed right to vote to all men, regardless of race


1871 Ku Klux Klan Act

.       Allowed individuals to sue states for private or public violations of their civil rights

.       Designed to protect blacks from the KKK when local law enforcement authorities in South refused to press charges against white supremacists

.       Major piece of Radical Reconstruction legislation


1875 United States v. Cruikshank

.       Ruled that U.S. Constitution did not "confer right of suffrage upon anyone," despite Fifteenth Amendment

.       First of series of Supreme Court decisions that undermined Reconstruction


1875 Mississippi Redemption

.       Democrats returned to power, re-establishing white power in state government

.       First Southern state government to expel blacks and Republicans from power


Compromise of 1877

.       After close election resulted in Electoral College deadlock, Democrats agreed to allow Republican Rutherford B. Hayes assume presidency in exchange for promise by Republicans to withdraw Federal troops from South

.       Marked end of Reconstruction





Radical Republicans

.       Republicans in Congress who sought to use federal power to ensure equal treatment under the law for all races through Reconstruction

.       Hated President Johnson's willingness to compromise with conservative southerners

.       Leading figures were Sen. Charles Sumner, Rep. Thaddeus Stevens


Ku Klux Klan

.       Secret white supremacist terrorist organization

.       Attacked blacks, Republicans, northerners, foreigners, Catholics, Jews in South

.       Blacks especially targeted for success or for trying to vote

.       Destroyed after Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871; recreated in twentieth century



.       Disparaging southern term for supporters of Republican Party

.       Often subjected to insults and violence from southern Democrats

.       Some genuinely wanted to help blacks; many merely supported Republicans because they wanted to industrialize South



.       Disparaging southern term for northerners who moved into positions of authority in South during Reconstruction

.       Often were Union officers trying to make profit

.       Some had genuinely altruistic motives; some just wanted to get rich; most in between


Freedman's Bureau

.       Tried to advance cause of blacks in South through education and social services

.       Ultimately undermined by southern hostility, northern fatigue






.       Southern term for period when white southern Democrats regained control of local governments at conclusion of Radical Reconstruction

.       Power gained and maintained through intimidation of blacks and Republicans





Ford's Theatre, Washington, D.C.

.       Playhouse where Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by actor John Wilkes Booth in 1865