Warren G. Harding

.       Conservative Republican president, elected 1920

.       Likable personality but plagued by corruption scandals

.       Died in office, 1923

Calvin Coolidge

.       Conservative Republican president

.       Elected vice president, 1920

.       Became president at Harding's death, 1923

.       "The business of America is business"

.       Reelected, 1924

.       Popular; oversaw "Coolidge prosperity"


Herbert Hoover

.       Progressive Republican president

.       Self-made millionaire in mining industry

.       Successful Secretary of Commerce, 1921-28

.       "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land," 1928

.       Elected president in landslide, 1928

.       Presidency ruined by Great Depression, 1929


Al Smith

.       Four-term Governor of New York

.       Wanted to end Prohibition

.       Democratic Party candidate for president, 1928

.       First Roman Catholic nominee for president

.       Crushed by Hoover in 1928 election

Eugene Debs

.       Labor leader and head of Socialist Party

.       Arrested under Espionage Act for criticizing President Wilson's conduct of World War I, 1918

.       Ran for president from federal prison in 1920

.       Won nearly 1 million votes in 1920 election


Margaret Sanger

.       Leading birth-control advocate

.       Founded American Birth Control League (now known as Planned Parenthood)

Andrew Mellon

.       Wealthy Wall Street investor

.       Secretary of the Treasury under Harding and Coolidge

.       Pro-business policies led to economic boom of Roaring Twenties, but also to bust of 1929 Great Crash

Henry Ford

.       Famous automaker

.       Developer of Model T, first popular car

.       Pioneered assembly-line process of mass production in industry

.       Wanted Americanization of foreign-born workers; had anti-immigrant and anti-Semitic beliefs


Charles Lindbergh

.       Famous pilot

.       First person to fly an airplane solo across the Atlantic

.       Became one of America's first hugely popular celebrities

Marcus Garvey

.       Black nationalist leader

.       Advocated black pride and resettlement of American blacks back to Africa

.       "Africa for Africans, at home and abroad"

.       Founded Black Star Line steamship company

.       Convicted of mail fraud under dubious circumstances and deported to Jamaica


Al Capone

.       Infamous Chicago gangster

.       Made millions selling illegal liquor during Prohibition

.       Convicted of income tax evasion and jailed at Alcatraz, 1931


D.W. Griffith

.       Hollywood filmmaker

.       Directed Birth of a Nation, the first real box-office blockbuster, 1915

.       Birth of a Nation glorified the Ku Klux Klan




1915 Birth of a Nation

.       First Hollywood blockbuster film

.       Set box-office sales record that lasted 22 years

.       Film glorified the Ku Klux Klan, leading to KKK revival in 1920s


1919 Red Scare

.       Post-World War I crackdown against radicals

.       Fueled by fear of Communist revolution

.       Increased powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation

.       Crushed American radical and labor groups


1919 18th Amendment

.       Enacted Prohibition

.       Banned sale or manufacture of alcohol in United States

.       Repealed in 1933


1920 19th Amendment

.       Achieved woman's suffrage

.       Granted women the right to vote


1920 Presidential Election

.       Republican Warren G. Harding elected president

.       Democrat James Cox crushed

.       Harding promised "return to normalcy"


1923 Death of President Harding

.       Harding died of heart attack in San Francisco, 1923

.       Death ended scandal-plagued administration

.       Vice President Calvin Coolidge became president


1924 Presidential Election

.       Popular Republican President Coolidge elected to his own full term

.       Democrat John W. Davis crushed


1924 National Origins Act

.       Restricted immigration

.       Expanded upon earlier immigration restrictions passed in 1921

.       Created immigration quotas based on nation of origin

.       Discriminated against immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe


1925 Scopes Monkey Trial

.       Tested Tennessee law banning teaching of evolution

.       Celebrity attorneys (Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan) represented both sides

.       Teacher John Scopes convicted

.       Trial was a publicity stunt


1928 Presidential Election

.       Republican Herbert Hoover elected president

.       Hoover promised "triumph over poverty"

.       Hoover won more electoral votes than any previous presidential candidate

.       Democrat Al Smith became the first Catholic to run for president, but was crushed in election


1929 Stock Market Crash

.       Financial panic struck Wall Street, causing collapse in prices of stocks

.       Stock market lost nearly 90% of its value between 1929 and 1932

.       Signaled onset of Great Depression





Ku Klux Klan

.       Reached height of popularity in 1920s

.       Revival followed positive portrayal of Klan in 1915 film Birth of a Nation

.       Anti-black, anti-Catholic, anti-Semitic, anti-immigrant, anti-sex, anti-alcohol

.       Controlled several state governments in 1920s


"New Immigrants"

.       Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe

.       25 million immigrants entered United States, 1880-1920

.       Different national and ethnic background of "new immigrants" alarmed many native-born citizens

.       "New immigration" cut off by restrictive 1924 National Origins Act


Harlem Renaissance

.       Literary and cultural movement of African Americans concentrated in New York's Harlem neighborhood

.       Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay important figures in Harlem Renaissance

Lost Generation

.       American writers living in Europe (especially Paris) after World War I

.       F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein important figures in Lost Generation


American Birth Control League

.       Founded by Margaret Sanger to advocate for legalization of birth control

.       Now known as Planned Parenthood






.       Process by which immigrants were made into Americans

.       Pushed heavily by Henry Ford and others who wanted to strip immigrants of ethnic identity


"New" Immigrants

.       Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, including Russians, Poles, Jews, Italians

.       Arrived in large numbers between 1880 and 1920

.       Initially considered by many Americans to be inferior to "old" immigrants from Nothern and Western Europe




Dayton, Tennessee

.       Small rural town hosted famous "Scopes Monkey Trial" in 1925, testing the legality of the teaching of evolution in public schools

.       Entire trial deliberately organized as a publicity stunt to gain attention for the economically struggling town


Harlem, New York

.       African American neighborhood at northern end of Manhattan in New York City

.       Site of vibrant black cultural movement known as "Harlem Renaissance" during 1920s

.       Home of Marcus Garvey's black nationalist movement