PEOPLE

 

Harry Anslinger

.       Director of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 1930-1962

.       Aggressive opponent of drug use

.       Testimony before Congress in 1937 key to federal criminalization of marijuana

 

Len Bias

.       Basketball star at U of Maryland; second pick (chosen by Boston Celtics) in 1986 NBA draft

.       Died of cocaine overdose one day after draft

.       His death sparked national panic over dangers of cocaine use

 

Humphrey Bogart

.       Popular American film actor in the 1950s

.       Often featured smoking cigarettes on screen

.       Heavy smoker in real life; died of lung cancer in 1957

.       His death inspired efforts to pass anti-smoking legislation

 

Christopher Columbus

.       15th century explorer famous for his voyage to the New World

.       First European to encounter the tobacco plant, a gift from Native Americans

.       Introduced Europe to the habit of smoking tobacco

 

Pablo Escobar

.       Colombian cartel chief; world's most powerful cocaine trafficker in the 1980s

.       Contributed to America's cocaine epidemic

.       Died in 1993 in shootout with Colombian police

 

Increase Mather

.       Leading Puritan minister in the early years of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

.       Worried that indulgence in alcohol, especially rum, would ruin the colony

 


Richard M. Nixon

.       Conservative Republican president, elected in 1968 and 1972

.       Coined phrase "War on Drugs" in 1971 speech; referred to illegal drug trade as "public enemy number one"

.       Resigned from office in 1974 as a result of Watergate scandal

 

John Pemberton

.       Atlanta chemist during the late 19th century

.       Invented Coca-Cola in 1886, using coca leaf (source of cocaine) and kola nut (source of caffeine)

.       Marketed Coca-Cola as a medical tonic

.       His original formula wasn't successful outside of Georgia

 

John Rolfe

.       Early America colonist at Jamestown, Virginia

.       First Englishman in America to grow tobacco

.       His success helped establish Virginia as rich tobacco-producing region

 

"Freeway" Ricky Ross

.       Los Angeles drug dealer; invented "Ready Rock," a cheap form of crack cocaine, 1980

.       Became rich and powerful drug trafficker by selling "Ready Rock" nationwide

.       Major contributor to the American crack epidemic

.       Sentenced to life imprisonment, 1996

 

Howard Schultz 

.       Billionaire businessman responsible for building Starbucks empire

.       Inspired by espresso bars while traveling in Italy

.       Introduced ready-made espresso drinks to Seattle coffee consumers, 1984

.       Helped revolutionize the American coffee-drinking experience

 


Harvey Wiley

.       Chemist during the Progressive Era

.       Major advocate for food and drug safety; helped pass and enforce the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act

.       Considered caffeine a type of poison, more dangerous than whiskey

.       Tried but failed to force Coca-Cola to eliminate caffeine from its drinks


EVENTS

 

1604 A Counterblaste to Tobacco

.       Pamphlet issued by England's King James I

.       Moral argument against smoking tobacco; compared those who smoked to "wild, Godless and slavish Indians"

.       Along with this pamphlet, King James increased tax on tobacco by 4000%

.       Failed to reduce tobacco use

 

1675 A Proclamation for the Suppression of Coffee Houses

.       Issued by England's King Charles II

.       Described coffee houses as "the great resort of idle and disaffected persons"

.       Ordered closure of all coffee houses

.       Rescinded after less than a week of vigorous protests

 

1906 Pure Food and Drug Act

.       Federal law passed during Progressive Era

.       Requires accurate labeling of food and medicine products

.       Bans products considered hazardous or poisonous

 

1914 Harrison Narcotics Tax Act

.       Federal law required doctor's prescription for heroin, opium, morphine, cocaine and other drugs that had been sold over-the-counter

.       Increased powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation

.       Expanded with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970

 

1919 18th Amendment

.       Total federal ban on production, sale, and consumption of alcohol

.       Advocated by churches, women's groups, and temperance organizations

.       Repealed in 1933 with passage of 21st Amendment

.       Failed miserably, creating major black market liquor industry and related organized crime

 

1966 Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act

.       Federal law required cigarette manufacturers to print warning labels on products

.       Tobacco industry, with help of lobbyists, won concession to use weak warning: "smoking may be hazardous to your health"

 

GROUPS

 

American Temperance Society (ATS)

.       Powerful anti-alcohol organization founded in 1826

.       First comprised of prominent religious leaders, then grew to include mostly women

.       Became most powerful mass organization to that point in American history

.       Successful in reducing alcohol consumption by 75% between 1830 and 1845

.       Many ATS members went on to be abolitionists and suffragists

 

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)

.       Founded by Candy Lightner after her child was killed by drunken driver

.       Originally dedicated to fighting drunk driving

.       Used moral arguments and stories of death to advance its cause

.       Instrumental in changing federal law to increase national drinking age to 21

 

Puritans

.       Early settlers of colonial New England

.       Often considered a God-fearing, prudish, pleasure-less group

.       Were, in fact, major producers and consumers of "Kill-Devil" rum

.       Puritan ministers worried that their people loved alcohol too much

 


Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

.       Powerful anti-alcohol organization founded in late 19th century

.       Advocated for a federal amendment banning alcohol sales in America

.       Instrumental in the passage of the 18th Amendement, 1919

 

CONCEPTS

 

Black Market

.       Illegal buying and selling of goods banned by law from legal trade

.       Resulted from laws banning legal sale of drugs

.       Profitable black markets often sustain organized crime

 

Bootlegger

.       Smuggler of illegal liquor

.       During Prohibition, secretly imported booze from nations like Canada, Mexico, and Cuba, where liquor remained legal

 

Cash Crop

.       Crop grown for sale and export rather than for food or animal feed

.       Tobacco was a major cash crop in early American history

.       Marijuana is most valuable cash crop in U.S. today

 

Gateway Drug Theory

.       Idea that one drug leads users to try more addictive and dangerous drugs

.       Henry Ford wrote an early version of this theory in 1914, saying tobacco use led to alcohol addiction and alcohol use led to morphine addiction

 

"Kill-Devil"

.       A strong liquor made from distilled sugar or molasses

.       A favorite alcoholic drink of early English colonists, particularly in sugar colony of Barbados and in New England

.       Known today as rum

 

Patent Medicines

.       Over-the-counter drugs, popular in late 19th and early 20th centuries, promised to cure a variety of ailments

.       Most were completely fraudulent; some included narcotic substances like heroin and cocaine

.       Coca-Cola originally sold as patent medicine

.       Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 banned many of these

 

"Ready Rock"

.       Cheap, impure version of smokable cocaine or "freebase"

.       Invented by drug dealer "Freeway" Ricky Ross in 1980

.       Made Ross one of America's richest and most powerful drug dealers

.       Known today as "crack"

 

Sin Taxes

.       Extra taxes imposed on alcohol and tobacco to deter use

 

Speakeasies

.       Illegal saloons common during Prohibition

.       Some half million operated in the U.S. during 1920s

.       Often served as fronts for organized crime

 

PLACES

 

Atlanta, Georgia

.       Birthplace of Coca-Cola

 

Jamestown, Virginia

.       Location of first permanent English settlement in North America, 1607

.       Colony sustained by sale of tobacco crops

 

Seattle, Washington

.       Birthplace of Starbucks Coffee

 

South Central Los Angeles, Los Angeles

.       Site of "Freeway" Rick Ross's invention of crack cocaine, 1980