PEOPLE

 

Jane Addams

.       Progressive reformer, founder of Hull House, 1889

.       Brought settlement house movement to America

.       Won Nobel Peace Prize, 1911

.       Promoted immigrant welfare through social service

 

Carrie Chapman Catt

.       President of National American Woman Suffrage Association

.       Led NASWA during final push for right to vote

.       Reorganized NAWSA into League of Woman Voters after vote achieved

 

Carry A. Nation

.       Radical Kansan temperance activist

.       Promoted violent attacks on saloons, became nationwide celebrity

 

Alice Paul

.       Suffragette, founder of National Woman's Party

.       One of most radical figures in second-wave feminism

.       Helped win ratification of Nineteenth amendment

.       Drafted Equal Rights Amendment

 

William Marcy "Boss" Tweed

.       Boss of New York City's Tammany Hall political machine

.       Ran "Tweed Ring" of associates, which embezzled between $20 and $200 million

.       Arrested in 1871, escaped to Cuba and then Spain before being hunted down by US agents

 

Lincoln Steffens

.       Muckraking author of The Shame of the Cities

.       Countered notion that immigrants were corrupting government

.       Eventually embraced socialism

 


Upton Sinclair

.       Muckraking novelist, author of The Jungle, 1906

.       Intended book to spread socialist message about mistreatment of workers in Chicago' meatpacking industry

.       Readers instead horrified by mistreatment of meat

 

Frances Willard

.       Leader of Woman's Christian Temperance Union

.       Made temperance organization strong supporter of female suffrage

 

 

EVENTS

 

1871 Tweed Ring Ousted

.       New York's Tammany Hall political machine lost power after exposure of criminal corruption of Boss Tweed and associates

.       Samuel J. Tilden (later to lose presidency to Rutherford B. Hayes) led accountability drive in New York

.       Thomas Nast drew famous cartoons ridiculing Tweed and his supporters

.       Anti-corruption "Committee of 70" ran for office in New York City, won and replaced most Tweed associates

 

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act

.       Immigration from China banned for ten years on racial and economic grounds

.       Immigration Act of 1882 also passed in same year, barring criminals, "idiots," lunatics, and people "likely to become a public charge" from entering U.S.

 

1889 Establishment of Hull House

.       Founded by Jane Addams and Helen Gates Starr

.       Settlement house based on British model; served poor immigrant community of Chicago

.       Became model for Progressive social service, emulated in other American cities

 


1890 Woman Suffrage in Wyoming

.       Wyoming gained statehood, continued pre-statehood practice of allowing women to vote

.       First state to allow women to vote

.       Ten more states granted women the vote by 1914

 

1901 Galveston Model

.       Replaced elected government of Texas city with professional municipal directors in wake of hurricane disaster

.       Beginning of "expert" model of city governance; attempted to limit corruption, run city like business

.       Spread to many cities across nation

 

1919 Eighteenth Amendment

.       Began nationwide Prohibition of alcohol

 

1920 Nineteenth Amendment

.       Granted women the right to vote

 

1921 Emergency Quota Act

.       Established strict quotas for numbers of immigrants allowed to enter U.S., based on national origin

.       Total number of immigrants allowed to enter each year from any country limited to 3% of number of previously naturalized residents from that country present in US in 1890

.       Discriminated against "new" immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe          

 

1924 National Origins Act

.       Updated and tightened quota system of 1921 immigration act

.       Effectively ended largest immigration wave in American history

 

 

GROUPS

 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union

.       Large political advocacy group headed by Frances Willard

.       Advocated temperance first, woman suffrage to that end

.       Also demanded prison reform, better public health, other Progressive causes

 


National Woman's Party

.       Political party led by Alice Paul; advocated militantly for female suffrage

.       Orchestrated first picket line at White House

 

National American Woman Suffrage Association

.       Political advocacy group organized to pursue the vote for women

.       Took pains to maintain moderate reputation to appeal to male electorate

 

Progressives

.       Slippery term, difficult to define

.       Generally middle class reformers

.       Promoted active change in society, often using tools of government

.       Incorporated members of both political parties

 

 

CONCEPTS

 

Settlement House

.       Social service organization that aimed to help poor and immigrants

.       Often staffed by idealistic middle class reformers, especially women

.       First example in America was Chicago's Hull House, founded by Jane Addams

.       Provided free services and classes along with cultural programs

Tammany Hall

.       Democratic political machine based in New York City

.       Staffed predominantly by Irishmen

.       Guaranteed Democratic control of city politics for decades

.       Infamously corrupt

 

Social Gospel

.       A socially conscious interpretation of the Bible, focused less on individual responsibility and salvation than on social service

.       Very influential among many Progressives, including Jane Addams

 


Muckrakers

.       Investigative journalists

.       Term coined by Teddy Roosevelt

.       Attempted to bring foul conditions of American industrial society to light

.       Tended toward sensationalistic exposés; rarely promoted specific solutions

 

 

PLACES

 

Hull House, Chicago, Illinois

.       First settlement house in U.S.; founded by Jane Addams

.       Offered wide variety of social services to poor immigrants, especially women

.       Housed in old mansion

 

Galveston, Texas

.       Site of devastating 1901 hurricane, the deadliest hurricane in American history

.       In wake of disaster, city government reorganized to be run by non-political professional experts to more efficiently lead recovery

.       This "Galveston Model" became a popular form of Progressive government nationwide

 

Tammany Hall, New York City

.       Headquarters of New York Democratic Party political machine

.       Maintained power by providing patronage to loyal mostly-Irish voters

.       Became a symbol of corruption

.       Hated by Progressives