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"Ich bin ein Berliner," said President John F. Kennedy in 1963, expressing his solidarity with the beleaguered citizens of Berlin in a famous speech delivered there soon after East Germany built the Berlin Wall. But Kennedy was no native speaker of German; a true Berliner would have said simply, "Ich bin Berliner." Some have argued that, by using the article "ein," Kennedy accidentally declared himself to be a type of jelly doughnut. But there is no evidence that anyone heard his speech that way at the time; Kennedy's message of solidarity was clear, even if his German grammar was rudimentary.

When John F. Kennedy campaigned in 1960 on the issue of the "missile gap," there did exist a gap... but it overwhelmingly favored the United States. The actual count of intercontinental ballistic missiles in 1961: the Soviets had about 10 instead of the 1000 feared6, and the Americans had 57.7

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