Definite Integrals
Topics
Introduction to Definite Integrals  At A Glance:
When f is a nonnegative function and a < b, the area between the graph of f and the xaxis on [a,b] is called the integral of f from a to b with respect to x. It's written like this:
The funny symbol Sshaped symbol is called an integral sign. The function f (x) is called the integrand. The dx part means that x is the variable of integration. The integral is taken from the number at the bottom of the integral sign
to the number at the top of the integral sign
.
The number at the bottom of the integral sign is called the lower limit of integration, while the number at the top of the integral sign is called the upper limit of integration.
When the area between the function and the horizontal axis isn't made up of nice shapes, it's harder to find the integral. That's why we spent all that time approximating areas: the lefthand sums and righthand sums and midpoint sums and trapezoid sums are ways to approximate the value of a definite integral.
Let f be a nonnegative function on [a,b]. As the number of subintervals increases, the lefthand sum approaches the actual area between f and the xaxis on [a,b]. Translating into symbols, as n approaches ∞, LHS(n) approaches . We defined as the area between the graph of f and the x axis on [a,b], but we can use this discussion to get a more precise definition. Define the integral of f on [a,b] as
.
The same discussion holds for the other kinds of sums, so we could also define the integral of f on [a,b] using any of the following statements:
If you like, you can think of that dx in the integral notation as a Δx that has gotten even smaller. If you could have infinitely many subintervals, each of them would have width dx.
Example 1
Identify the various parts of the expression

Example 2
Translate into symbols: "the integral of the function 2t + 3t^{2} on the interval [0,2]." 
Example 3
Let f (x) = 4x. Find . 
Example 4
Let f (x) = 4x + 2. Find . 
Exercise 1
For each integral identify the (a) integrand, (b) lower limit of integration, (c) upper limit of integration, and (d) variable of integration.
Exercise 2
For each integral identify the (a) integrand, (b) lower limit of integration, (c) upper limit of integration, and (d) variable of integration.
Exercise 3
For each integral identify the (a) integrand, (b) lower limit of integration, (c) upper limit of integration, and (d) variable of integration.
Exercise 4
Translate into symbols:
 The integral of the function g(t) on the interval [8,9].
Exercise 5
Translate into symbols:
 The integral of 6x^{2} from x = 2 to x = 5.
Exercise 6
Translate into symbols:
 The integral of y from y = a to y = b.
Exercise 7
Find the integral. (hint: graph the function in question)
 Let f ( x ) = 5. Find
Exercise 8
Find the integral.
 Let g (t) = 83t. Find .
Exercise 9
Find the integral.
 Let s(t) = 93t. Find
Exercise 10
Find the integral.
 Find .