# At a Glance - Trapezoid Sum with Shortcuts

The trapezoid sum is a good one to have some shortcuts for. We'll call the trapezoid sum with *n* sub-intervals *TRAP*(*n*).

Here's our favorite shortcut: *TRAP*(*n*) is the average of *LHS*(*n*) and *RHS*(*n*).

These rectangles are, respectively a left-hand sum and a right-hand sum!

Remember that the trapezoid sum is the average of the left- and right-hand sums. However, there's an even shorter way to get a trapezoid sum out of your calculator.

Remember that

*LHS*(*n*) = [*f*(*x*_{0}) + *f*(*x*_{1}) + ... + *f*(*x*_{n – 1})]Δ*x*

and

*RHS*(*n*) = [*f*(*x*_{1}) + ... + *f*(*x*_{n – 1}) + *f*(*x _{n}*)]Δ

*x*.

The trapezoid sum is the average of the right- and left-hand sums, so

This is kind of a mess. It gets better if we factor out the Δ*x*:

Now look carefully at what we have inside the parentheses. The quantities *f* (*x*_{0}) and *f* (*x _{n}*) only show up once each, because

*f*(

*x*

_{0}) is only used in the left-hand sum and

*f* (*x _{n}*) is only used in the right-hand sum:

However, every term from *f*(*x*_{1}) to *f*(*x*_{n – 1}) is used in both the left-hand sum and right-hand sum, so each of these terms will show up twice each.

That means

If we're estimating the area between *f* and the *x*-axis on [*a*, *b*] with *TRAP*(n) the first thing we do is divide [*a*, *b*] up into *n* equal sub-intervals and find the endpoints.

The value *f*(*x*_{0}) is only used as a height of the left-most trapezoid. Similarly, the value *f*(*x _{n}*) is only used as a height of the right-most trapezoid. However, the value of

*f*at every endpoint in between these shows up in two trapezoids.

When we add the areas of all these trapezoids we get

Factoring out the and the Δ*x* gives us

Now we have a much better way to find a trapezoid sum:

In words,

- Divide the interval into sub-intervals.

- Find the value of
*f*at each endpoint.

- Multiply each value by 2
*unless*it's the value of*f*at one of the original endpoints.

- Add everything up, divide by 2, and multiply by the width of a sub-interval.

#### Example 1

Use a trapezoid sum with 4 sub-intervals to estimate the area between the graph of |

#### Example 2

Let |

#### Exercise 1

Let . Use a trapezoid sum with 4 sub-intervals to estimate the area between the graph of *f* and the *x*-axis on [1, 3].

#### Exercise 2

Let *g*(*x*) = 3*x* + 2. Use a trapezoid sum with 3 sub-intervals to estimate the area between the graph of *g* and the *x*-axis on [0, 6].

#### Exercise 3

Values of the function *f* are given in the table below. Use a trapezoid sum with 8 sub-intervals to estimate the area between *f* and the *x*-axis on [2, 10].

#### Exercise 4

Values of the function *f* are shown in the table below. Use a trapezoid sum with the sub-intervals suggested by the table to estimate the area between *f* and the
*x*-axis on [0, 10].