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Derivatives

Derivatives

At a Glance - Slope at One Point?

The slope of the function f at the point (a, f(a)) is the limit of the slope of the secant line between x = a and x = a + h as h gets closer to 0. Whew, that's a mouthful.

From the formula for the slope of this secant line, we find another formula:

"The slope of f at a" is also called the derivative of f at a and is written f '(a). This nice formula is known as the limit definition of the derivative, and we'll write it again here, with correct notation:

Visually, we move h closer and closer to 0 (equivalently, move a + h closer and closer to a) and watch what happens to the secant line, as in this animation.

If we could keep going until h reached 0 (equivalently, until ah reached a) we would find a line that, instead of passing through the graph twice, would hit the graph at one spot and bounce off.

The slope of the function f at the single point x = a is the slope of this line, also called the tangent line.

Here are two important things to remember:

  • The slope of f at a and the derivative of f at a are the same thing.
  • Since the derivative of f at a is a limit, the derivative won't always exist.

Another phrase for f '(a) is the instantaneous rate of change of f with respect to x when x = a.

It's important to remember that the derivative is a limit. Later on, we'll find nifty ways to compute derivatives without having to take a limit every time, but fundamentally, every time we take a derivative we're finding a limit. In fact, if we look hard enough, every in calculus can be reduced to a limit.

Exercise 1

Let f(x) = x2 and let a = 1.

Find the slope of the secant line from x = a to x = a + h if h

  1. 0.4
  2. 0.3 
  3. 0.2 
  4. 0.1

Exercise 2

Let f(x) = x2 and a = 1.

Find the slope of the secant line from x = a to x = a + h if h = 

  1. -0.4
  2. -0.3
  3. -0.2
  4. -0.1

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