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Roots of Common Terms in DNA Structure, Replication, and Technology

(L = Latin, G = Greek, F = French, Ge = German, U = Unknown Origin)

Anticodon

anti = opposite (L); code = system of communication (L)

Chromosome

chromos = color (G); soma = body (G)

Clone

chromos klonos = trunk or branch (G); refers to trees regrowing by removing a branch and replacing it

Deoxyribose

deoxy = without oxygen (G); ribose = isomer arabinose, a sugar in gum arabic (Ge)

Epigenetics

epi- = over or above (G); abstraction of "genesis" = origin (G)

Euchromatin

eu- = good (G); chromatin = pertaining to color (G)

Gene

chromos abstraction of "-genes" = "that which produces" (G)

Genetics

abstraction of "genesis" = origin (G)

Genome

combination of "gene" + "chromosome" (G)

Helicase

helix = twist (G); -ase = suffix for an enzyme, taken from diastase (F)

Heterochromatin

hetero = different (G); chromatin = pertaining to color (G)

Phylogenetics or Phylogeny

phylon = tribe (G); genetikos = relative from birth (G)

Plasmid

plasm- = pertaining to plasma (G); -id = offspring of (G)

Primer

chromos primarius = first (L)

Promoter

promotour = to advance forward (F)

Repressor

reprimere = press back (L)

Telomerase

telos = end (G); meros = part (G); -ase = suffix for an enzyme, taken from diastase (F)

Telomeres

chromos telos = end (G); meros = part (G)

Transcription

transcriptum = something is copied (L)

Translation

translatio = transferring (L)

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