"Dr. Heidegger's Experiment" explores questions of age and behavior. What does it mean to be old? What does it mean to be young? What is the difference between defining age physically, and defining it mentally or emotionally? One interpretation of the text suggests that age is a state of mind; if one believes one is young, one will act accordingly. The story's moralistic side argues that youth is associated with folly, but offers no hope for redemption in older age, either.
Dr. Heidegger already knows what the outcome of his experiment will be, because he already understands the nature of youth and folly. He only subjects his guests to the experiment for his own sadistic amusement.
The authorial tone of "Dr. Heidegger's Experiment" is a pessimistic one.