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Citations

1 Quoted in Maldwyn Allen Jones, American Immigration (U. of Chicago, 1960), 268.
2 Alex Gottfried, Boss Cermak of Chicago: A Study of Political Leadership (U. of Washington Press, 1962), 226.
3 Quoted in Maldwyn Allen Jones, American Immigration (U. of Chicago, 1960), 259.
4 Woodrow Wilson, A History of the American People (Harper & Brothers, 1902), 212-13.
5 Quoted in Maldwyn Allen Jones, American Immigration (U. of Chicago, 1960), 268.
6 Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition, ed. Susan Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael Haines, Alan Olmsted, Richard Sutch and Gavin Wright (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), http://hsus.cambridge.org/, accessed 5 January 2009.
7 "Immigration Station," Angel Island Association, http://www.angelisland.org/immigr02.html, accessed 5 January 2009.
8 "Timeline: Key Dates and Landmarks in United States Immigration History," Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930, Open Collections Program, Harvard University Library, 17 October 2006, http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/dates.html, accessed 5 January 2009.
9 "Ellis Island History," The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc, http://www.statueofliberty.org/Ellis_History.html, accessed 5 January 2009.
10 Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition, ed. Susan Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael Haines, Alan Olmsted, Richard Sutch and Gavin Wright (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), http://hsus.cambridge.org/, accessed 5 January 2009.
11 Maldwyn Allen Jones, American Immigration (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), 184.
12 Maldwyn Allen Jones, American Immigration (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), 184.
13 Maldwyn Allen Jones, American Immigration (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), 184.
14 Mark Twain, North American Review, September 1906, quoted in Albert Bigelow Paine, Mark Twain, (New York: Harper, 1912), 538. See also "The Day Mark Twain Wore Black," J. Dennis Robinson, As I Please, Vol. 4, No. 3, 26 January 2006, http://www.seacoastnh.com/arts/please012600.html, accessed 5 January 2009.
15 "Ellis Island History," The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc, http://www.statueofliberty.org/Ellis_History.html, accessed 5 January 2009.
16 Quoted in David M. Kennedy, "Can We Still Afford to be a Nation of Immigrants?", The Atlantic Monthly, November 1996.
17 New York Times, 21 May 1911.
18 New York Times, 21 May 1911.
19 Statistics originally published in Statistical Abstract of the United States (Washington, DC, Government Printing Office, 1929), 100; reprinted on the History Matters website, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5078, accessed 5 January 2009.
20 Alex Gottfried, Boss Cermak of Chicago: A Study of Political Leadership (U. of Washington Press, 1962), 205.
21 Alex Gottfried, Boss Cermak of Chicago: A Study of Political Leadership (U. of Washington Press, 1962), 226.
22 United States Bureau of Immigration, Immigration Laws and Regulations (Government Printing Office, 1903), 24.
23 Martha Gardner, The Qualities of a Citizen: Women, Immigration, and Citizenship, 1870-1965 (Princeton U. Press, 2005), 88.
24 Ann Marie Nicolosi, "'We Do Not Want Our Girls to Marry Foreigners': Race, Gender, and American Citizenship," NWSA Journal (13:3).
25 Ann Marie Nicolosi, "'We Do Not Want Our Girls to Marry Foreigners': Race, Gender, and American Citizenship," NWSA Journal (13:3).
26 Anarchist Exclusion Act of 1901 or An Act To Regulate the Immigration of Aliens into the United States, 57th United States Congress, 3 March 1903, quoted in Frederick Van Dyne, Citizenship of the United States (Wm. S. Hein Publishing, 1904; 1980), 93.
27 Alien Registration Act cited in full in Henry Steele Commager, Documents of American History (Prentice-Hall, 1973), 433.
28 New York Times, 2 February 1990.
29 New York Times, 12 May 1911.
30 Gary Gerstle, American Crucible: Race and Nation in the Twentieth Century (Princeton U. Press, 2001).
31 Quoted in Olivier Zunz, The Changing Face of Inequality: Urbanization, Industrial Development, and Immigrants in Detroit, 1880-1920 (U. of Chicago Press, 1982), 312.
32 Quoted in Allen Freeman Davis, American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams (Oxford U. Press, 1973), 72.
33 "Ellis Island History," The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc, http://www.statueofliberty.org/Ellis_History.html, accessed 5 January 2009.
34 "Ellis Island History," The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc, http://www.statueofliberty.org/Ellis_History.html, accessed 5 January 2009.
35 David M. Kennedy, "Can We Still Afford to be a Nation of Immigrants?", The Atlantic Monthly, November 1996.
36 "Lower East Side: The Physical Landscape," Lower East Side Tenement Museum, 2005, http://www.tenement.org/encyclopedia/lower_landscape.htm, accessed 5 January 2009.
37 Maldwyn Allen Jones, American Immigration (U. of Chicago Press, 1960) 184.
38 Emma Lazarus, "The New Colossus," included in Lisa Guernsey and Michael R.H. Owens, Lady Liberty: The Changing Face of Freedom, The Capitol Project, Department of American Studies, University of Virginia, http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/LIBERTY/lazarus.html, accessed 5 January 2009.
39 Quoted in Samuel P. Huntington, Who Are We? The Challenges to America's Identity (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), 132.
40 Alex Gottfried, Boss Cermak of Chicago: A Study of Political Leadership (U. of Washington Press, 1962), 226.
41 Quoted in David M. Kennedy, "Can We Still Afford to be a Nation of Immigrants?", The Atlantic Monthly, November 1996.
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