From 11:00PM PDT on Friday, July 1 until 5:00AM PDT on Saturday, July 2, the Shmoop engineering elves will be making tweaks and improvements to the site. That means Shmoop will be unavailable for use during that time. Thanks for your patience!
In the landmark Brown v. Board decision in 1954, which determined that separate schooling for black children is inherently unequal, Chief Justice Earl Warren declared that "to separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone." Harris & Ewing Photography. Public Domain. Public domain.