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When a company goes public and gets incorporated, they change legal status. Part of it means having lots of meetings and signing more paperwork than most of us see in a lifetime. One of those pieces of paperwork is a charter, which outlines a bunch of rules—including the total number of shares a company can issue. This number of shares is called authorized stock, 'cause it's the total number of shares the company is authorized by its charter to issue.
Let's say Company XXX wants to buy Company Y. Company XXX has an authorized limit of 100 million shares. It currently has 85 million shares and 5 million options, yet unvested, outstanding. Technically it has 90 million shares outstanding. It wants to print shares to buy Company Y. But company Y wants 20% of the primary shares of Company XXX or 17 million shares. Company XXX cannot print the shares to buy Y. Why? Because it needs to get approval to change the charter—doable only by a majority vote of the outstanding shares at the time.