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Natural philosophy is the genius that has regulated my fate; I desire, therefore, in this narration, to state those facts which led to my predilection for that science. (2.6)
In this context, natural philosophy is something like physics. But what if Victor had decided he liked, say, botany? Or chemistry? Is there any kind of science that would have been safe for him to pursue?
If, instead of this remark, my father had taken the pains to explain to me that the principles of Agrippa had been entirely exploded and that a modern system of science had been introduced which possessed much greater powers than the ancient, because the powers of the latter were chimerical, while those of the former were real and practical, under such circumstances I should certainly have thrown Agrippa aside and have contented my imagination, warmed as it was, by returning with greater ardour to my former studies. (2.7)
So, science is anything "real" and "practical." In modern terms, we'd call this the scientific method: science is any knowledge that can be acquired through empiricism.
My father was not scientific, and I was left to struggle with a child's blindness, added to a student's thirst for knowledge. (2.9)
Seriously? Frankenstein is trying to make us believe that if his dad has just been smarter, none of this would have happened. (Actually, Frankenstein should probably be glad his dad wasn't a scientist, because then he'd get answers like this.)