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Franny and Zooey
by J.D. Salinger
Analysis: Allusions When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.
Literature and Philosophy T.S. Eliot (Franny.1.4) Sappho, fr. 140a (Franny.1.4) Rainer Maria Rilke, (Franny.1.7) The Duino Elegies Gustave Flaubert (Franny.2.10, Z.6.60) Leo Tolstoy (Franny.2.14), War and Peace (Zooey.3.5) Fyodor Dostoevsky (Franny.2.14), The Idiot (Zooey.6.1) William Shakespeare (Franny.2.14, Z.3.8), " Yorick's skull," from (Zooey.8.69) Hamlet Ivan Turgenev (Franny.2.23) Stendhal (Franny.2.23) (Franny.4.5, Z.5.47) The Way of the Pilgrim The Bible (Franny.4.9, F.4.21) The (Franny.4.9, F.4.21) Philokalia F. Scott Fitzgerald, (Zooey.1.2) The Great Gatsby Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (Zooey.1.2) Booker T. Washington (Zooey.3.3) The Upanishads (Zooey.3.4) The (Zooey.3.4) Diamond Sutra Meister Eckhart (Zooey.3.4) Anton Chekhov, The Cherry Orchard (Zooey.3.5) Homer (Zooey.3.8) William Blake (Zooey.3.8) Walt Whitman (Zooey.3.8) Max Müller (editor), (Zooey.3.8) Sacred Books of the East Ernest Hemingway, (Zooey.4.6) A Farewell to Arms Franz Kafka (Zooey.4.20, Z.7.31-2) Eve and Cain (Biblical) (Zooey.4.42) The New Testament (Zooey.4.61, Z.6.114, Z.6.127) (Zooey.5.47) The Pilgrim Continues His Way Bram Stoker, Dracula (Zooey.6.1) Clair W. Hayes, (Zooey.6.1) The Boy Allies on the Somme Emily Dickinson (Zooey.6.124, Z.7.11), (Zooey.6.1) Bolts of Melody S. S. Van Dine, (Zooey.6.1) The Scarab Murder Case Carolyn Keene, (Zooey.6.1) Nancy Drew and the Hidden Staircase Søren Kierkegaard, (Zooey.6.1) Fear and Trembling Colette (Zooey.6.41) Thomas Wolfe (Zooey.6.41) Chuang Tzu (Zooey.6.69) Epictetus (Zooey.6.70, Z.6.112, Z.6.124), (Zooey.7.18-9) Golden Sayings XXVIII Francis Kilvert (Zooey.6.89) Solomon (Biblical) (Zooey.6.118, Z.6.127) St. Francis of Assisi (Zooey.6.120, Z.6.127) Isaiah (Biblical) (Zooey.6.127) David (Biblical) (Zooey.6.127) Paul (Biblical) (Zooey.6.127) Moses (Biblical) (Zooey.6.127) Pontius Pilate (Biblical) (Zooey.6.127) Socrates (Zooey.6.127, Z.7.18) Crito (Zooey.6.127) Pascal (Zooey.7.11) Charles Baudelaire (Zooey.7.11) Thomas a Kempis (Zooey.7.11) Bhagavad-Gita (Zooey.7.13-5) Kobayashi Issa (Zooey.7.17) Ulysses (Zooey.7.18) Ring Lardner, "How to Write Short Stories" (Zooey.7.20-3) Jean Pierre de Caussade (Zooey.7.24) Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina (Zooey.7.25-8) The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna St. Francis de Sales (Zooey.7.33) The Mu Mon Kwan (Zooey.7.34-9) Charles Dickens, Dombey and Son (Zooey.8.39) J. M. Synge, The Playboy of the Western World (Zooey.8.67) Historical and Political References Music, Art, and Pop Culture References
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