The French & Indian War Terms
Forks Of The Ohio RiverThis refers to the confluence of the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers at present day Pittsburgh.
The IroquoisThe Iroquois were not a single Indian tribe, but rather an alliance of Indian nations centered in western New York. Formed in the early seventeenth century, this alliance, also known as the Iroquois Confederacy, Iroquois League, or the Five Nations, originally consisted of the Mohawks, Senecas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Oneidas. In 1722 the Tuscaroras joined the Iroquois Confederacy.
By 1750 the Iroquois were the dominant Indian power in British North America. Using weapons obtained through trade with the Dutch and then the English in New York, they reduced dozens of smaller Indian tribes throughout the Great Lakes Basin and Ohio Valley to client nations.
Ohio IndiansThis label has been applied to the Indians, primarily Delawares, Shawnees, and Mingos, who repopulated the Ohio Valley in the early eighteenth century. During the previous century, the Iroquois, in their efforts to expand their power, had driven out most of the valley's Indian inhabitants. In moving into the abandoned Ohio Valley, the Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo hoped to maintain their independence from Iroquois control.
Mourning WarsThese wars were waged by Native Americans in order to rebuild their populations decimated by disease, famine, and war. The women and children of the defeated enemy tribes were adopted by the raiding tribe, often by a family that had lost a member to disease or war.
Walking PurchaseThis deal between the Iroquois and the government of Pennsylvania was first negotiated in 1737 and then confirmed by treaty in 1742. In it, the Iroquois deeded more than 750,000 acres of land, claimed and occupied by the Delaware Indians, to the British colony. The Delaware were a client-tribe of the Iroquois and too weak, in 1737, to challenge the purchase. But in 1758, during the French and Indian War, the Delaware secured a pledge from the British in the Treaty of Easton to re-negotiate the Walking Purchase. The British made this concession as they were anxious to win the support of the Delawares in their war against the French for control of the Ohio Valley.
RegularsThis term refers to the soldiers of the British army. It is used to distinguish these professional or trained soldiers from the amateur or comparatively untrained members of the colonial or provincial militia.
ProvincialsThis label was applied to the militia raised by the colonial governments in British North America. Different than the local militia raised by individual towns during the colonial period to provide defense against Indians, the provincial militia were organized by the colonial or provincial government. Provincials served for fixed terms of service (generally eight months), and were compensated for their service.
Bleeding, BledBleeding (also known as bloodletting or venesection) was a common medical treatment during the eighteenth century. It was used to treat various diseases, infections, and even hemorrhaging. There were several theories recommending its use—but it was most commonly believed that removing blood that had been overheated or corrupted by disease would stimulate recovery.