Functions, Graphs, and Limits
 Intro
 Topics

Examples
 OneSided Limits
 Finding Vertical Asymptotes
 Vertical Asymptotes vs. Holes
 Limits of Functions at Infinity
 Finding Horizontal/ Slant/ Curvilinear Asymptotes
 How to Draw Rational Functions from Scratch
 Power Functions vs. Polynomials
 Polynomials vs. Logarithmic Functions
 The Basic Properties
 Multiplication by a Constant
 Adding and Subtracting Limits
 Multiplying and Dividing Limits
 Powers and Roots of Limits
 Exercises
 Quizzes
 Terms
 Handouts
 Best of the Web
Examples
OneSided Limits
Becky has been planning her Florida vacay for months. The only thing left on her todo list is to find a new bathing suit. She is cruising the web to find the perfect one. Eventually, she gives up...
Finding Vertical Asymptotes
Vertical asymptotes most frequently show up in rational functions. When a rational function f(x) has a nonzero constant in the numerator and an expression with a variable in the denominator, the f...
Vertical Asymptotes vs. Holes
Both vertical asymptotes and holes are places where the curve never quite touches. Holes occur at places where the limit of the function exists but the function itself does not. These correspond to...
Limits of Functions at Infinity
When we find the limit of a function f(x) as x goes to infinity, we're answering the question "What value is f(x) approaching as x gets bigger and bigger and bigger...?''A rockin' example...
Finding Horizontal/ Slant/ Curvilinear Asymptotes
Sometimes when a function has a horizontal asymptote, we can see what it should be. Sample ProblemLet f(x) = 4x. Then as x approaches ∞ the function f approaches 0, there is a horizontal asympto...
How to Draw Rational Functions from Scratch
We now have enough tools to draw some complicated functions from scratch. Now we know how graphing calculators do it, and why they require the energy of four tripleA's.When drawing a rational func...
Power Functions vs. Polynomials
In the world of horse races, power functions like 2x will always grow faster than plain old polynomials, no matter how high the degree of the polynomial. By "grow faster'' we mean that if we go far...
Polynomials vs. Logarithmic Functions
Who wins when we compare polynomials and logarithmic functions? Look at a picture.Eventually, after not too long, the polynomial will pull ahead of the logarithmic function. This makes sense, becau...
The Basic Properties
Basic Property 1If c is a real number, then Think of this as taking the limit of the constant function f(x) = c. No matter what we plug in for x, we get c as the output. If we made a tablexf(x)x1cx...
Multiplication by a Constant
If ,then .This rule is often written .We say that we're "pulling out'' the constant c from the limit.Sample ProblemFor example,and .Be Careful: This rule is only valid if is a...
Adding and Subtracting Limits
Limits can be added and subtracted, but only when those limits exist.Adding and Subtracting Property 1If a is a real number and bothand exist, thenIn words, as long as the limits that are added bot...
Multiplying and Dividing Limits
Multiplication PropertyAs long as both and exist,In words, the limit of a product is the product of the limits, as long as the limits involved exist.Assume Then Assume ThenAssume Then Using...
Powers and Roots of Limits
Power PropertyIf exists, and p is any real number,Sample ProblemIf then
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