Homer brings the gods into The Iliad, which tells the story of the mythic Trojan War. Most of the gods of Olympus take sides in the human war: Hera, Athena, and Poseidon are rooting for the Greeks, while Aphrodite, Ares, and Apollo are fighting for the Trojans. Though his whole family is going bonkers over the war, Hades doesn't pick a side. For a bit more on Hades in this Greek epic, check out Themes: Mortality in The Iliad.
The Roman poet Ovid collected many myths in The Metamorphoses, including the story of Pluto and Proserpina (a.k.a. Hades and Persephone), Orpheus and Eurydice, and other Hades-related tales.
Greek and Roman mythology plays a big role in James Joyce's Ulysses, as you could probably guess from the title. One whole chapter of the book is called "Hades," and that portion of the novel deals significantly with death.
One of the characters in this F. Scott Fitzgerald short story is from a fictional town called Hades. Read about the influence of mythology in the story here.
Hades (called Pluto) enters the Marvel universe in one of the Thor comics. He's got some cool aliases, including Hayden P. Hellman.
This young adult novel features a totally creepy character called Mr. Pluto, who sure seems to be inspired by Hades.
Hades and Wonder Woman have a complicated relationship in the DC Comics series. Wonder Woman goes to the underworld sometimes, but it's not always clear if Hades is her ally or enemy.
This old-school Nintendo (NES) game is about a guy named Orpheus who takes a trip to the underworld to get back his girl, Helene. Apparently, Hades kidnapped Helene and is trying to force her to marry him. (Sounds like Nintendo mixed up a couple of Greek myths…) As often is the case in recent years, Hades is the bad guy. He's also the end boss.
Hades plays an important role in all of the Percy Jackson books, including the first book, The Lightning Thief. In later books, we find out that he's the father of two half-blood kids.
The Greek gods make it onto the PlayStation in the God of War video game trilogy. The mortal hero of the games, Kratos, butts heads with the gods of Olympus, including Hades. He's shown as pretty gross and monstrous. In God of War III, Hades appears as one of the bosses (and we all know what happens to bosses in video games.)