Music was an important part of the Civil War. Soldiers sang to stave off boredom, fear, and homesickness. Civilians back at home sang to remind themselves of what their boys were fighting for. Check out this site to see which tunes were popular with the North and South.
Stowe, a devout Christian, was the daughter of famous preacher Lyman Beecher and the sister of another notable clergyman, Henry Ward Beecher. She wrote this hymn, still used in churches today, at her brother's request.
During the Civil War, fifes and drums were used as both tactical instruments to signal to troops as well as musical instruments. These songs were played by Union and Confederate troops.
Enslaved African-Americans used songs to express comfort, faith, and protest. Some spirituals were sung by slaves as they worked. Others, such as "Swing Low Sweet Chariot" and "Wade In the Water," were about the Underground Railroad. This site explores the genre in depth.
For many Southerners, Harriet Beecher Stowe was the embodiment of Northern hypocrisy. After Stowe left the U.S. in the 1850s for a book tour in England, this Southern ballad was written mocking her and accusing her of "abandoning" African-Americans.
You don't often think of glam rock and abolitionism in the same sentence, but the band Warrant apparently wants to change that. Their song "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is inspired by the book.