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When Harry walks through the door, he realizes that he recognizes Courtroom Ten.
This is the room Harry saw in Dumbledore's memories in Book Four, where "the Lestranges [were] sentenced to life imprisonment in Azkaban" (8.1).
The room is filled with about 50 people — the full Wizengamot, which is the wizarding council.
Harry sees Cornelius Fudge right away. Percy Weasley is writing down everything that is going on.
As Cornelius Fudge starts listing off Harry's interrogators, a voice interrupts him: "Witness for the defense, Albus Percival Wulfric Brian Dumbledore" (8.14).
Fudge looks absolutely surprised to see Dumbledore.
He clearly thought that changing the time and place of the trial would be enough to keep Dumbledore away.
Dumbledore answers, "due to a lucky mistake I arrived at the Ministry three hours early, so no harm done" (8.19).
Fudge accuses Harry of producing "a Patronus Charm in a Muggle-inhabited area, in the presence of a Muggle" (8.24).
The severe-looking witch next to Fudge seems impressed that Harry is able to produce a Patronus at fifteen.
Harry tries to explain that he only cast the charm because he saw Dementors.
The Wizengamot is silent at this.
The severe-looking witch, Amelia Bones, answers, "Dementors? [...] What do you mean, boy?" (8.56).
Fudge immediately starts smirking: "Let me explain. He's been thinking it through and decided Dementors would make a very nice little cover story, very nice indeed. Muggles can't see Dementors, can they, boy? Highly convenient, highly convenient" (8.60).
Harry insists that he's not lying.
Dumbledore offers that in fact, there is a witness.
The witness is Arabella Figg, Harry's old babysitter.
She claims that, since she's a Squib, she can still see Dementors even though she's not a witch.
(Harry suspects that Mrs. Figg is lying on this point — she sounds unsure when she says, "They were big. Big and wearing cloaks" (8.89).)
But she does describe how the Dementors feel: "Everything went cold, and this was a very warm summer's night, mark you. And I felt ... as though all happiness had gone from the world ... and I remembered ... dreadful things ..." (8.92).
Mrs. Figg testifies that the Dementors attacked Harry and his cousin.
Fudge dismisses Mrs. Figg's testimony, but Madam Bones speaks up, "She certainly described the effects of a Dementor attack very accurately. And I can't imagine why she would say they were there if they weren't" (8.102).
Fudge can't believe a pair of Dementors would make it to a Muggle suburb.
Dumbledore thinks it's no coincidence. The Dementors were ordered there by someone, which is a sign that, "the Dementors are taking orders from someone other than the Ministry of Magic" (8.109).
A witch sitting next to Fudge, a woman who looks "just like a large, pale toad" (8.113), giggles, "it sounded for a teensy moment as though you were suggesting that the Ministry of Magic had ordered an attack on this boy!" (8.117).
Dumbledore agrees that it's only logical that (a) either the Dementors are outside Ministry control, or (b) "somebody at the Ministry might have ordered the attacks" (8.118).
Fudge looks completely enraged at both suggestions.
Dumbledore argues that Harry has the right to defend himself even if he is underage, so the Patronus he cast is justified.
Finally, Madam Bones calls a vote.
More than half the Wizengamot votes for Harry, with some notable exceptions including Fudge and the toad-like witch.
Fudge announces, "Very well, very well ... cleared of all charges" (8.154).
Dumbledore leaves the courtroom without looking at Harry once.