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Leibniz (Fraction) Notation

To do integration by substitution using Leibniz notation, we think of the derivative function  as a fraction of infinitesimally small quantities du and dx. We change variables by manipulating these infinitesimal quantities.

The general strategy is pretty much the same as before:

  • Change variables (substitute in u for some function of x).
  • Integrate.
  • Put the original variable back (substitute the function of x back in for u).

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