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Ivanhoe

Ivanhoe

by Sir Walter Scott

Analysis: Allusions

When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.

Literary and Philosophical References

  • "Mr. Oldbuck of Monkbarns," see The Antiquary (1817) by Sir Walter Scott (Epistle.1, Epistle.7)
  • "a second M'pherson," see James McPherson, "The Poems of Ossian," 1773 (Epistle.1)
  • Lucan, Roman writer of Pharsalia, 39-65; Scott cites the Latin passage of Pharsalia Book 6, lines 629-31, which translates to "Firm must be the flesh/ As yet, though cold in death, and firm the lungs/ Untouched by wound." (Epistle.4)
  • Joseph Strutt, 18th century writer and engraver (Epistle.5; "Queen-Hoo Hall" Epistle.10)
  • Sharon Turner, 18th century English historian [note, despite the fact that his name is Sharon, this guy is a dude] (Epistle.5)
  • Robert Henry, 18th century Scottish historian (Epistle.5; as "the industrious Henry" – 23.33)
  • Horace Walpole, 18th century English Gothic author (Epistle.7)
  • George Ellis, 18th century author of Abridgement of the Ancient Metrical Romances [actually called Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances] (Epistle.7)
  • Antoine Galland, 17th century translator of Arabian Nights (Epistle.9)
  • Geoffrey Chaucer, 14th century medieval poet and writer (Epistle.12; "General Prologue," lines 165-172 – Chapter 2 epigraph; "The Knight's Tale," lines 2599-2610 – Chapter 12 epigraph)
  • "the well of English undefiled," line written by 16th century English poet Edmund Spenser to Geoffrey Chaucer; appears in The Faerie Queen Book IV.Canto ii. Stanza 32 (Epistle.12)
  • Thomas Chatterton, 18th century writer; super-young poet and imitator of English medieval style (Epistle.13)
  • William Shakespeare, 16th century playwright (Coriolanus, Act 1.6 – Chapter 33 epigraph; Henry V, Act 3.1 – Chapter 31 epigraph; King John, Act 3.3 – Chapter 34 epigraph; The Merchant of Venice, Act 3.1, lines 59-64 – Epistle.14, Chapter 5 epigraph, 28.55; also Act 2.8 – Chapter 22 epigraph; Richard II Act 1.1 – Chapter 38 epigraph; also Act 1.2 – Chapter 43 epigraph; Richard III – 14.1; Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act 4.1 – Chapter 11 epigraph; also Act 5.3 – Chapter 23 epigraph)
  • "The Wardour Manuscript," a made-up historical document that Scott cites as the source of Ivanhoe, perhaps a reference to The Antiquary, Sir Walter Scott, 1816 (Epistle.19; 8.22; 9.22; 23.36; 44.45; 44.49)
  • William Caxton, English printer famous for his first edition of Geoffrey Chaucer's work in the 15th century (Epistle.9)
  • Wynken de Worde, Dutch printer who worked with Caxton (Epistle.9)
  • Ingulphus, 10th century Abbot of Crowland Abbey (Epistle.18)
  • Geoffrey of Vinsauf, medieval grammarian and rhetorician (in other words, a medieval writer interested in language and poetry) (Epistle.18)
  • Jean Froissart, 14th century medieval French chronicler (Epistle.18)
  • "The Dragon of Wantley," funny anonymous ballad from the 17th century that survives in Thomas Percy's 1767 Reliques of Ancient Poetry (1.1)
  • Homer, Odyssey, translated in 1726 by poet Alexander Pope (Chapter 1 epigraph; 1.27; Chapter 4 epigraph; "Eumaeus in Ithaca," 6.43)
  • James Thomson, "Liberty" (1734) (Chapter 3 epigraph)
  • Juliana Berners, 15th century religious woman and writer of A Treatyse of Fysshynge with an Angle, on sports fishing (5.Note 5)
  • John Dryden, 17th century English translator and poet ("Palamon and Arcite" (1700), translation and expansion of Geoffrey Chaucer's "Knight's Tale" in the Canterbury Tales – Chapter 7 epigraph; Chapter 8 epigraph; "The Flower and the Leaf" (1700), translation of an anonymous 15th century Middle English poem – Chapter 9 epigraph)
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, "The Knight's Tomb" (1817) (8.22)
  • Christopher Marlowe, Act II, The Jew of Malta (1594) (Chapter 10 epigraph)
  • William Wilkie, Book V, The Epigoniad (1757) (Chapter 13 epigraph)
  • Thomas Warton, English poet ("Ode XVIII to a New Year" (1787) – Chapter 14 epigraph; "Inscription in a Hermitage" (1777) – Chapter 17 epigraph)
  • Joanna Baillie, 18th century Scottish playwright and poet (Count Basil: A Tragedy (1798) – Chapter 15 epigraph; Orra: A Tragedy (1812) – Chapter 19 epigraph; Chapter 21 epigraph)
  • The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 9th century collection of texts in Old English (23.34)
  • Eadmer, chronicler and monk in Canterbury (23.36)
  • John Home, Douglas: A Tragedy, Act I (1756) (Chapter 24 epigraph)
  • Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer, Act IV (1771) (Chapter 25 epigraph)
  • George Crabbe, "The Hall of Justice" (Chapter 27 epigraph)
  • Juvenal, Roman poet and satirist of the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D. (28.54)
  • Frederick Schiller, Maid of Orleans (1801), Act V, Scene 11: Maid of Orleans is a tragedy based on the life of Joan of Arc (Chapter 29 epigraph)
  • Anna Seward, "Song (From thy waves, stormy Lannow, I fly)," from a three-volume collection of her poetry edited by Scott
  • Fructus Temporum, Latin name of the Chronicles of Saint Albans, also known as The Chronicles of England, a 15th century history of England (40.21)
  • John Webster, Act IV, Scene 1, The White Devil (Chapter 44 epigraph)
  • Samuel Johnson, "The Vanity of Human Wishes: In Imitation of the Tenth Satire of Juvenal." Note that, in the original poem, the second line goes, "A petty fortress and a dubious hand." Scott replaces "dubious" with "humble" to suggest that King Richard was killed by an ordinary soldier. (44.79)

Biblical, Legendary, and Mythological References

  • The Horn of King Ulphas, also spelled "Ulphus": apparently this drinking horn is a real thing, but the book of essays is fictional. (Epistle.1)
  • "Are not Pharphar and Abana, rivers of Damascus, better than all the rivers of Israel?," the Bible, 2 Kings 5:12 (Epistle.3)
  • King Oberon, mythic King of Fairyland; major character in Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream (1.25)
  • Odin, Norse god who rules Asgard, the realm of the gods; used as an oath in Ivanhoe (2.38; 26.56)
  • Mahound, a medieval (and sometimes anti-Muslim) spelling of the name of the prophet Mohammed (5.8; 17.11)
  • Termagaunt, the name of a god the medieval Christians believed (falsely) that Muslims worship (5.8)
  • Abraham, first patriarch of the Jewish people (5.57; 6.28; 6.31; 6.36; 6.69; 7.21; 10.45; 22.12; 22.22; 22.43; 24.39; 28.3)
  • Aaron, brother of Moses (6.36)
  • Moses, prophet who leads the Jewish people from slavery in Egypt (6.36; 29.26; 38.2)
  • Lazarus: oddly, Isaac (who is Jewish) refers to this Biblical figure, even though he only appears in the New Testament. The Lazarus in question is a beggar in the parable of Lazarus and the Rich Man, which appears in the Gospel of Luke. (6.38)
  • The Israelites: the Jewish people, the descendants of Isaac, the younger son of Abraham (6.38; as the children of Zion – 10.33; 10.69; 11.35; 15.12; a child of Israel – 19.3; 22.3; 33.71; 39.1)
  • The Ishmaelites: the descendants of Ishmael, the older son of Abraham (6.38; 19.3; 28.7)
  • Jacob, third patriarch of the Jewish people, son of Isaac and Rebecca (6.71; 22.22; 24.59; 29.36; 29.65; 33.48; 35.8; 38.48; 39.44; 39.46)
  • "the host of Pharaoh": reference to Exodus, the second book of the Bible, which is the story of Moses and the Israelites escaping Egypt (6.67)
  • "Bride of the Canticles": canticles are sacred songs; "the Canticles" refers specifically to the Song of Songs (also known as the Song of Solomon) in the Bible. The story of the Song of Songs includes a courtship and a marriage, hence the whole "Bride" thing. (7.21)
  • Mammon, Biblical demon of wealth and greed (7.23; 33.16; 38.37)
  • Og, King of Bashan, see the Bible, Psalm 135 (9.28)
  • Sihon, King of the Amorites, see the Bible, Psalm 135 (9.28)
  • Gandelyn, outlaw linked with Robin Hood in anonymous medieval texts (11.43)
  • King Arthur, legendary English king (13.62; 15.2)
  • The Tribe of Benjamin, also known as the Benjaminites: see the Bible, Book of Judges (15.10-11)
  • Pater: pater noster, qui es in caelis, meaning "Our Father, who art in Heaven" – beginning of one of the central Catholic prayers (16.16; 17.26; 32.63; 37.22; as paternoster – 37.12)
  • Ave: ave Maria gratia plena, "Hail Mary, full of grace" – the beginning of a second important Catholic prayer (16.16; 17.26; 32.63; 32.65)
  • Credo: credo in unum Deum, "I believe in one God" – the beginning of a relatively long Catholic Mass, the Creed (16.16; 17.26; 32.63; as "the creed" – 37.12)
  • Shadrach, Meshech, and Abednego, the three faithful men who pass through the furnace of King Nebuchadnezzar without being burned in the Book of Daniel (16.36)
  • "the scissors of Delilah": in the Biblical Book of Judges, Delilah's beloved Samson has special strength thanks to his long hair. When Delilah cuts his hair, she leaves him powerless. (16.62; also, "He shall burst the bands of this Dalilah as Sampson burst the two new cords with which the Philistines bound him" – 36.18)
  • "the tenpenny nail of Jael": again, in the Bible's Book of Judges, Jael, wife of Heber, kills Sisera in his sleep with a nail and hammer to save her people (16.62)
  • "the scimitar of Goliath": in the Book of Samuel, Goliath is the giant fighting on the side of the Philistines whom David kills with a single stone and a slingshot (16.62; 32.85)
  • "Law of Mount Sinai," the Biblical Ten Commandments: in Exodus, Moses brings down the Ten Commandments to the Israelites from Mount Sinai (19.6; "the law of my fathers [...] delivered in thunders and in storms upon the mountains of Sinai" – 38.3)
  • de Profundis clamavi: the first Latin line of Psalm 130, "Out of the depths have I cried unto thee, O Lord" (20.20)
  • The Talmud, the most important collection of oral commentary on Jewish law, ethics, and Biblical study (22.36)
  • Passover, the Jewish holidays celebrating the Israelites' freedom from slavery in Egypt (22.36)
  • Zernebock, also spelled Czernobog or Chernabog: an ancient Slavic spirit, this name is often translated to mean "Black God"; used in Ivanhoe as a curse (24.5; 27.20; 30.39; 31.85; 42.6; 42.71)
  • The Witch of Endor: woman magician in the Old Testament Book of Samuel (24.28; 35.46; 35.49)
  • Queen of Sheba, iconic wise woman ruler, appears in the Book of Kings and the Book of Chronicles in the Bible (24.30)
  • The Sirach, also known as Ecclesiasticus, part of the apocrypha of the Bible ("apocrypha" means uncertain or not official, so it both is and isn't part of the Bible); deals specifically with wisdom and virtue (24.34)
  • Sir Lancelot du Lac, also known as Launcelot, one of King Arthur's Knights of the Round Table, and the tragic lover of Queen Guinevere (34.48-49)
  • Apollyon, angel of destruction who appears in the New Testament, Book of Revelations (25.6; 42.6)
  • Thor, Norse god of Thunder; used as an oath in Ivanhoe (26.56)
  • Woden, Anglo-Saxon equivalent of the Norse god Odin; ruler of the gods (27.20; 42.3)
  • Hertha, ancient German goddess of the Earth (27.20)
  • Mista, also known as Mist, one of the Valkyries. In Norse mythology, the Valkyries were immortal women who rode on horseback and escorted dead heroes to the halls of Valhalla. See the Old Norse epic poem, the Grimnismol (27.20; 30.39)
  • Skogula, also known as Skogul, another of the Valkyries who appears in the Old Norse saga the Grimnismol (27.20; 30.39)
  • Belial, a demon, the personification of evil (27.105; 27.107; 28.16; 35.7; 38.41)
  • "The quiver rattleth – the glittering spear and the shield – the noise of the captains and the shouting!" King James translation of the Bible, Book of Job 39:23 and 39:25 (29.7)
  • Moloch, a god worshipped by the early Israelites and Ammonites; this god demanded child sacrifices to pass through fire (29.61)
  • Judah, Jewish patriarch and son of Jacob (son of Isaac, son of Abraham) (29.65; 36.30; 38.32; 39.1; 39.47)
  • [Judah] Maccabeus, rebel leader who defended the Jews against the invasion of Antiochus IV (29.65)
  • Gideon, judge and liberator of the Jews from the Midianites (29.65)
  • The Fatal Sisters, also called the Fates, the Norns, or the Wyrd Sisters, are the three Norse goddesses who control human fate (31.85)
  • Valhalla, the hall where Norse heroes go once they die (31.85)
  • Adam, figure in the Bible's book of Genesis; the first man, husband to Eve, sometime resident of the Garden of Eden (Chapter 32 epigraph; 40.97)
  • "the ten tribes of Israel, who were led into Assyrian bondage": ten of the original twelve tribes of Israel were taken into slavery by the Assyrians in the eighth century B.C. (33.38)
  • "The Curse of Egypt": a reference to the ten Biblical plagues of the Egyptians, appearing in the Book of Exodus (33.39)
  • Ichabod: figure in the Book of Samuel, whose name means woe unto the glory of Israel (33.50)
  • "prey unto the Assyrian": the Biblical Book of Micah describes a threat to the people of Israel from the Assyrian empire's expansion (33.57)
  • "prey unto him of Egypt": reference to the Israelites' slavery in Egypt in the Book of Exodus (33.57)
  • "they have cast forth the Word of the Lord, and there is no wisdom in them [...] I will give their women to strangers [...] and their treasures to others": Prior Aymer quotes here from the Book of Jeremiah 8:9-10 (33.58)
  • "the Vulgate": in other words, the Latin Vulgate translation of the Hebrew and Greek Bibles by Saint Jerome in the late 4th century (33.90)
  • "giving them stones instead of bread": Prior Aymer refers here to the Gospel of Luke 11:11 (33.90)
  • Sir Guy of Gisbourne, figure in the popular Robin Hood legends (34.29)
  • Sir Bevis of Hampton, character in an Anglo-Saxon English romance (34.29)
  • Ahithophel, advisor to King David in the Book of Samuel (34.4)
  • "the Children of the Promise": in the Book of Genesis, God promises Abraham numerous descendants even though he is a very old man; thus, the Children of the Promise are the children of Abraham, the Jewish people (35.8)
  • David, the second king of the united Israel; Nathan refers to David's conquest of the Edomites in the Book of Samuel (35.9)
  • "Daniel in the den of lions": Daniel's faith in God keeps him safe even when he is thrown into a den of hungry lions in the Biblical Book of Daniel (35.13; "Daniel, who was called Beltheshazzar, even when within the den of lions" – 38.41)
  • "In many words thou shalt not avoid sin": Book of Proverbs 10:19 (35.15)
  • "Life and death are in the power of the tongue": Book of Proverbs 18:21 (35.15)
  • Bacchus, Roman god of wine and drunkenness (35.46)
  • Venus, Roman goddess of love (35.46)
  • "The Lion of the Tribe of Judah hath conquered": reference to the New Testament Book of Revelations 5:5, which in turn echoes the language of the Old Testament (37.24)
  • Solomon, a King of Israel in the Book of Kings and the Book of Chronicles, famous for his wisdom (38.37)
  • Ben-Oni, according to the Book of Genesis 35:18, Rachel names her son Ben-Oni as she is dying; the name means "son of my sorrow or affliction"; Judah renames his son Benjamin, meaning "son of my right hand" (38.39)
  • Babel, the great tower and Biblical symbol of human pride, which God destroys to prove his power and authority over human ambition; see the Book of Genesis 11 (39.1)
  • "but [my faith] is anchored in the Rock of Ages": see Book of Isaiah 26:4 (39.10)
  • Sadducees, one of three major philosophical movements in Judaism around the time when Jesus was alive (43.55)
  • Ephraim, son of Joseph and father of one of the twelve tribes of Israel (44.62)
  • Issachar, son of Jacob and father of one of the twelve tribes of Israel; renowned for his hard work (44.62)

References to Saints

  • Saint Withold, not apparently an officially canonized saint, but a frequent literary reference as an English holy figure, perhaps coming from Shakespeare's play King Lear (according to "Note 20:14," Graham Tulloch. Ivanhoe. New York: Penguin Classics, 2000. pg. 419) (1.10; 15.18; 18.13; 18.24; 25.18; 27.35-36; 27.43; 27.51; 28.26; 28.54; 32.10)
  • Saint Dunstan, English saint (1.20; 6.22; 10.22; 10.70; 11.2; 16.12; 16.14; 16.23; 16.34; 16.55; 17.6; 17.15-16; 18.24; 20.22; 20.59; 25.18; 25.46; 26.17; 26.33; 31.4; 32.67-8; 40.118; 40.124-5; 40.127; 42.65; 42.6)
  • Saint Mary, mother of Jesus (2.26; 4.4; 24.15; 33.82; 35.46; 40.27 as the Blessed Virgin – 2.45; as Holy Virgin – 8.3; as Our Lady of Bethlehem – 25.13; as Sancta Maria – 27.103; as Our Blessed Lady – 28.30; as Our Lady – 34.60; 40.118)
  • Saint Hilda of Whitby, 7th century abbess (4.6)
  • Saint Grizzel, a reference from Prince John, does not seem to correspond to an actual saint (7.33)
  • Saint Nicholas of Myra, patron saint of thieves (11.2; 11.15; 20.6; 40.82; as Saint Nicholas of Limoges (presumably a church where Saint Nicholas is worshipped) – 31.33)
  • Saint Anthony (14.20; 18.26)
  • Saint Thomas, also known as Doubting Thomas and Thomas the Apostle, he was one of Jesus' followers (14.40)
  • Saint Julian the Hospitaller, a patron saint of travelers (16.10)
  • Saint Swibert, an English monk (17.30)
  • Saint Winifred, a Welsh saint (17.30)
  • Saint Willibald, Englishman and brother of Saints Walburga and Winibald (17.30)
  • Saint Dubric, Welsh saint (17.30)
  • Saint Willick, it's unclear who the Friar means by this name (17.30)
  • Saint Edward the Confessor, King of England when the Normans invaded in 1066 (18.24; 31.72; 32.10; 40.86; 44.49)
  • Saint Edmund, martyr and English king (18.24; 42.6; 42.40; 43.10; 43.14; 43.20; 44.48)
  • Saint George, patron saint of England (19.14; 20.65; 29.27; 29.48; 31.23; 31.68; 38.22; 38.25; 39.64; 40.86; 40.105; 43.67)
  • Saint Thomas à Becket, the famous churchman killed (accidentally?) on the word of Prince John's father, Henry II (25.3, 34.56; as Thomas à Kent – 17.30, 32.76; as Saint Thomas of Canterbury – 25.52)
  • "Saint" Niobe: Niobe is a Greek mythological figure who wept so long at the death of her children that she turned into a weeping rock. Of course, being a figure out of Greek mythology, she can't also be a Christian saint, as De Bracy assumes. This confusion displays De Bracy's ignorance. (25.5)
  • Saint Luke, writer of one of the four Gospels of the New Testament (25.18)
  • Saint Michael the Archangel (25.23; 43.30; as "St. Michael trampling down the Prince of Evil" (23.4))
  • Saint Francis of Assisi, renowned for his self-denial and message of peace; also the originator of the Order of Saint Francis, (a.k.a. the Franciscans), an order of monks. Wamba pretends to be a Franciscan at Torquilstone Castle. (26.2; 26.8)
  • Saint Denis, Bishop of Paris, martyr and early Christian saint (26.17; 27.59; 27.110; 27.124; 31.25)
  • Saint Duthoc, also spelled Duthac or Duthus, patron saint of part of the Highlands of Scotland (26.17)
  • Saint Genevieve, the patron saint of Paris (27.61)
  • Saint Bennet, more generally Saint Benedict, founder of the Benedictine order of monks in the 6th century A.D. (27.92)
  • Saint Christopher, 3rd century Christian martyr (27.96; 31.4; 41.19)
  • Saint Augustine, De Civitate Dei (City of God) (27.101)
  • Saint Anne, mother of Saint Mary (30.18)
  • Saint Aldhelm of Malmesbury, 7th and 8th century Christian scholar (32.23)
  • Saint Hermangild, also spelled Hermenegild, Visigoth saint and Christian martyr (32.61)
  • Saint Nicodemus, early Christian martyr and secret disciple of Jesus (33.6)
  • Saint Andrew, the first Apostle (33.14)
  • Saint Robert, patron saint of religious education (though he was born about 350 years after this book is supposed to take place) (33.56)
  • Saint Hubert, patron saint of hunters (33.77; 43.28)
  • Saint Peter, Apostle (34.33)
  • Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Benedictine and Cistercian monk (35.18-19; 37.8)
  • Saint Magdalene, also known as Saint Mary Magdalene or Mary Magdalene, one of Jesus' most famous disciples, well known for the power of her repentance (36.15)
  • Saint Alban, first British Christian martyr (40.19)

Foreign Phrases and Quotes

  • Detur digniori: Latin, "Let it be given to the more worthy" (Epistle.1)
  • vale tandem, non immemor mei: Latin, "Goodbye to all; don't forget me!" (Epistle.21)
  • Benedicite: Latin, "Blessings" (2.10; 30.6; 42.35)
  • mes filz: Old French, "my son" (2.10)
  • Clericus clericum non decima: Latin, "Clerics do not take from clerics" (2.17)
  • voe victis: Latin, plural form of vae victis, "woe to the vanquished" (2.39)
  • lac dulce; lac acidum: Latin, sweet milk; sour milk (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 486) (4.34)
  • recheat: French, in hunting, a horn call to bring hounds back when they have lost their prey (5.19)
  • mort: Anglo-Norman and Middle French, in hunting, a horn call to signal the death of a deer (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) (5.19)
  • curée: French, prey given to the hunting dogs to eat (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) (5.19)
  • arbor: Middle English, grass or garden lawn (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) (5.19)
  • nombles: Middle French, spelled "numbles" in the Oxford English Dictionary, refers to the guts of an animal meant for eating (5.19)
  • cri de guerre: French, war cry (5.21)
  • to ride en croupe: French, to ride pillion; in other words, to ride behind the main rider on the back of a horse or mule (6.57)
  • attaint: French, a jousting term, meaning that your lance touches your opponent firmly on the chest as it's supposed to (8.27)
  • mêlée: French, a tournament between groups of fighters rather than individual knights (8.32; 29.60; 31.67)
  • Gare le Corbeau: Anglo-French "Beware the Raven" (8.43)
  • Cave, adsum: Latin, "Beware, I am here" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 484) (8.54)
  • Outrecuidance: French, overconfidence, arrogance (9.47; 27.59)
  • faire le moulinet: French, to defend yourself with a sword or staff by spinning it above your head like the spokes of a windmill (11.47)
  • Laisser aller: French, literally, "let go," but more in this case, more like "away! start!" (12.17; 43.78)
  • nidering, also spelled niddering: this is not really a medieval word; it's a later invention that's supposed to sound medieval. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it means coward, villain, or outlaw. (14.28)
  • Conclamatum est, poculatum est: Latin, "we have shouted; we have drunk" (14.41)
  • Waes hael: Saxon toast meaning "To your health"; origin of the English word "wassail" (16.53; 42.4)
  • Drinc hael: Saxon toast meaning, "I drink to your health" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 485) (16.54; 42.4)
  • Sirvente: Provençal (in other words, southern French) humorous song form (17.5)
  • lai: songs written in eight-syllable rhyming lines, generally used to tell a story (17.5)
  • virelai: medieval French song form with complex rhyme scheme (17.5)
  • "the language of 'oc'": refers to Occitan, a medieval language spoken in southern France, especially in the lands of Aquitaine and Languedoc ("oc" is Occitan for "yes") (17.5)
  • "the language of 'oui'": in other words, the French language, since "oui" is French for "yes") (17.5)
  • Exceptis excipiendis: Latin for "with due exceptions being made" (17.28)
  • Despardieux: By God! in Middle French (24.30; 27.48)
  • par amours: French, "secretly" (24.30; 35.50)
  • machicolles: French, meaning "machicolation," a special medieval architectural term for a wooden gallery built on the outside of castle towers and walls, with holes in the floor for pouring molten lead or oil (24.46)
  • Pax vobiscum: Latin for "Peace be with you" (25.64; 26.7; 26.17; 26.46; 26.50-51)
  • Et vobis; quoeso, domine reverendissime, pro misericordia vestra: Latin, "And with you, O most reverend master, I beseech you, in your mercy" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 485) (26.50)
  • surquedy (or surquedry): from Old French, surcuidier, excessive pride, arrogance (27.59)
  • Deus vobiscum: Latin, May God go with you (27.98; 31.73)
  • Si quis, suadente Diabolo: Latin, "If anyone, at the persuasion of the devil" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 489) (27.103)
  • Mantelet: French, a movable shelter for use during castle and fort sieges (27.110)
  • Pavisse: French, full-body shields (27.110)
  • En avant! French, "Forward!" (29.27)
  • à la rescoussee!: French, "to the rescue!" (29.27)
  • bruit: French, rumor (30.6)
  • Genam meam dedi vapulatori: Latin, "I have given my cheek to the smiter" (32.88)
  • Manus imponere in servos Domini: Latin, "to lay hands on the servants of the Lord" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 487) (33.2)
  • excommunicabo vos: Latin, "I shall excommunicate you" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 485). To excommunicate someone from the Catholic church is to take away their right to worship as a Catholic. This also means that the person will not go to heaven (according to the teachings of the church). (32.2; 33.92)
  • nebulo quidam: Latin, "good-for nothing [...] scamp" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 487) (32.4)
  • Deus faciat salvam benignitatem vestram: Latin, "God keep your reverence safe" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 485) (33.12)
  • latro famosus: Latin, "a famous robber" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 487) (33.41)
  • inter res sacra: Latin, "accounted sacred" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 486) (33.86)
  • Ut Leo semper feriatur: Latin, "let the lion always be beaten down" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 489) (35.21)
  • Invenientur vigilantes: Latin, "will be found watching" (35.46)
  • Vinum laetificat cor hominis: Latin, "Wine maketh glad the heart of man" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 489) (35.46)
  • Rex delectabitur pulchritudine tua: Latin, "The king shall rejoice in thy beauty" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 488) (35.46)
  • Semper percutiatur leo vorans: Latin, "The ravening lion is ever to be beaten down" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 488) (35.46; 37.6)
  • De commilitonibus Templi in sancta civitate, qui cum miserrimis mulieribus versantur, propter oblectationem canis: Latin, "concerning the brethren in arms of the Temple who frequent the company of misguided women for the gratification of their fleshly lusts" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 485) (36.8)
  • le don d'amoureux merci: Latin, "the greatest gift that love can bestow" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 487) (36.21)
  • "Venite exultemos Deo": The Latin version of Psalm 95, put to music as a hymn (37.4)
  • Auferte malum ex vobis: Latin "Remove the evil from among you," quoted from First Corinthians 5:13 (37.8)
  • Quod nullus juxta propriam voluntatem incedat: Beaumanoir translates this as, "He hath walked according to his proper will," echoing Leviticus 26:40: "If they shall confess their iniquity, and the iniquity of their fathers, with their trespass which they trespassed against me, and that they have walked contrary to me" (37.8)
  • Anathema maranatha: Greek, a curse that appears untranslated in First Corinthians 16:22: "If any man loveth not the Lord, let him be Anathema Maranatha." (37.8)
  • essoine, also spelled essoin, early English legal term coming from Norman French, which means "failure to appear in person in court (38.25)
  • destrier, French, war horse (40.18)
  • rascaille, Anglo-Norman, meaning "the rabble" or "the mob" (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) (40.68)
  • Confiteor, Latin, I confess (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) (40.116)
  • soul-scat, also spelled soul-scot: a term from Old English meaning an amount of money paid to a church on behalf of a dead person (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) (42.6)
  • Mort de ma vie!: French, literally "Death of my life!" but works here as a general exclamation (42.35)
  • Te igitur: refers to a book of Latin Catholic prayers; people used this book to swear oaths (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) (43.38)
  • oyez, oyez, oyez: Anglo-Norman French meaning "Hear ye, hear ye, hear ye"; opening phrase to begin a court proceeding (43.41)
  • Faites vos devoirs, preux chevaliers: French, "Do your duty, brave knights!" (43.78)
  • Fiat voluntas tua: Latin, "Thy will be done" (according to "Notes," Ivanhoe. New York: Signet Classics, 1962, pg. 485) (43.83)

Places (Both Legendary and Real)

  • Inch Merrin, a.k.a. Inchmurrin, an island in the middle of Scotland's Loch Lomond (Epistle.16)
  • Persepolis, ancient Persian city (Epistle.16)
  • Habitancum, ancient Roman settlement in Northumberland, England (Epistle.21)
  • Arthur's Oven, an ancient Roman ruin found in Scotland, eventually destroyed in 1743 (Epistle.21)
  • Gath, one of the five Biblical Philistine cities (Epistle.21; 32.85)
  • Ashby-de-la-Zouche Castle, Norman castle located in Leicestershire that provides a background for the tournament (2.44; 3.19; 4.33; 7.7; 12.35; 14.1; 15.4; 43.9)
  • Jorvaulx, also spelled Jervaulx: 12th century abbey and religious center in Yorkshire, sadly destroyed in the 16th century (2.9; and throughout the novel – Prior Aymer's home)
  • Oxford and Cambridge Universities (3.2)
  • The Castle of Coningsburgh, the home of Athelstane, Cedric's Saxon friend, which is based on the real-life 12th century South Yorkshire castle of Conisbrough (4.33; and throughout the novel)
  • Rood of Bromholme, Bromholm Priory ("rood" means cross) (5.51; 42.42)
  • Rabbah, Ammon: Biblical city of the Ammonites (6.36)
  • "Temple of that wise king": the Biblical Temple of Solomon (7.21; 24.34)
  • Zion: the Biblical homeland of the Jewish people (10.33; 10.36; 10.70; 24.30; 24.34; 35.9; 38.48)
  • Askalon, an ancient Palestinian city (17.10)
  • Inconium, now Konya, a city in southern Israel (17.11)
  • Damocles: a figure in a famous parable by the Roman orator Cicero. Even when Damocles is surrounded by riches, he cannot enjoy them because there is a sword hanging by a single thread over his head on the orders of the tyrant Dionysius II (link: http://www.livius.org/sh-si/sicily/sicily_t11.html) (24.17)
  • "the vale of Baca": beautiful valley mentioned in the Bible, Psalm 84 (24.26)
  • Languedoc, rich province in southern France (24.30)
  • Compostela, hugely famous Christian pilgrimage site in Spain (27.29)
  • Saint Bees, a priory in Cumbria, in the north of England (27.48; 40.21; 40.51)
  • Saint Ives, ancient seaside town in Cornwall, in the south of England (27.48)
  • Edom (also called Idumea) land to the south of Israel; King Saul wages war against the Edomites in the Book of Kings (28.7; 28.16; 35.8)
  • Saint John of Acre: an ancient Templar hall in the town of Acre, in the Holy Land (29.50)
  • The Humber, a body of water on the North Yorkshire coast (34.37)
  • Mount Carmel, a mountain in Israel important in both modern geography and Biblical scripture (39.39)
  • Priory of Saint Botolph an Anglo-Saxon monastic community in Essex, England – which is pretty far from Yorkshire, so Scott may have gotten his places mixed up (40.1; 40.28; 41.1; 41.5; 41.10)
  • Trebizond, also written as Trabzon, province in northeastern Turkey (43.55)

Historical References

  • Anne, Queen of England, reigned 1702-1714 (Epistle.2)
  • The [French] Revolution, 1789-99 (Epistle.2)
  • The "Bruces and Wallaces of Caledonia," see, for example, Robert the Bruce (1274-1329, King of the Scots) and William Wallace (d. 1305, leader in the Wars of Scottish Independence) (Epistle.3)
  • Rob Roy, Scottish outlaw, 1671-1734 (Epistle.3; "the estimable Roy M'Gregor" Epistle.4)
  • Richard I, King of England, reigned 1189-1199) (Epistle.18; 1.2; and throughout the novel)
  • The battles of Cressy (or Crécy, 1346) and Poictiers (or Poitiers, 1356), Hundred Years' War (Epistle.12)
  • Robin of Redesdale, rebel leader during the 15th century War of the Roses (Epistle.21)
  • John Knox, leader of the 16th century Protestant Reformation in Scotland (Epistle.21)
  • Wars of the Roses, 1455-1485 (1.1)
  • Stephen, King of England, reigned 1135-1154 (1.2)
  • Henry II, King of England, reigned 1154-1189 (1.2; 14.4; 14.16; as Prince John's "grey-headed father" – 30.23; 34.56-57)
  • The Knights Templar, an order of Crusading knights (first 2.28 and throughout the novel)
  • The Knights Hospitaller, a.k.a. the Knights of Saint John, a second, competing order of Crusading knights (5.23; 7.15-16; 8.36)
  • William the Conqueror, King of England (and Norman invader), reigned 1066-1087 (1.4; as "William the Bastard" – 3.14; 15.2; 23.35)
  • The Battle of Hastings, 1066 – the battle where the Normans conclusively defeated King Harold II and his lords and conquered England (1.4; 3.14; 13.47; 13.63; 14.28; 18.6)
  • William II, King of England, reigned 1087-1100 (1.5; 7.33; 15.2)
  • Edward III, King of England, reigned 1327-1377 (1.5; 44.52)
  • Hereward the Wake, 11th century Anglo-Saxon leader of the resistance to the Norman conquerors; also the name of Cedric's father (2.39; 3.16; 26.33; 27.8; 29.64; 31.15; 42.33)
  • "the Heptarchy": the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that eventually unified into the kingdom of England; these were Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Wessex. (2.39; 41.34)
  • Alfred the Great, Anglo-Saxon ruler of England, reigned 871-899 (3.26; 9.31; 14.14; 31.2; 34.2; 44.49; 44.78)
  • Vortigern, ruler of England in the 5th century (4.35)
  • Saladin, leader of the Muslim forces against Richard I (4.37; 7.16; 35.6; 39.39)
  • Hengist, 6th century Anglo-Saxon leader and defender of Britain (5.39; 21.40; 31.85; 32.43; 41.34; 42.54)
  • Exchequer of the Jews, medieval British institution for special taxation of Jewish people in England (5.57; 6.63)
  • John, Prince during the reign of Richard I, later King of England, reigned 1199-1216 (6.63 and throughout the novel)
  • Leopold V, Duke of Austria, captor of Richard I (7.1)
  • Philip II, King of France, reigned 1179-1223 (7.2; 35.6; 44.45)
  • Arthur of Brittany, nephew of Richard I and King John, Richard I's official heir (7.2; 7.16)
  • Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, fourth son of Henry II and father of Arthur of Brittany (note that Scott calls him "Geoffrey Plantagenet." This Geoffrey is not to be confused with his grandfather, also called Geoffrey Plantagenet, who died about 40 years before the events of Ivanhoe. Yes, medieval history can be confusing.) (7.3)
  • "Wat" Tyrrel, also known as Walter Tyrrel, Lord of Poix, who shot William II in the chest with an arrow during a hunting accident (7.32)
  • Sir Thomas de Multon, great friend to Richard I (9.10; 41.9)
  • Beau-sant, also spelled Beauseant: among their many flags, the Knights Templar used banners with a block of solid black on top of a block of solid white, known as the Beauseant (12.19; 29.27; 43.3)
  • William Hastings, First Baron Hastings, lived 1431-1483 (14.1)
  • Richard III, King of England, reigned 1483-1485 (14.1)
  • Roger la Zouche, owner of Ashby-de-la-Zouche Castle during the period of Ivanhoe (1175-1238); Scott mistakenly claims that the owner of the castle was Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester. (14.1)
  • Charlemagne, King of the Franks (768-814) and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (800-814) (14.5)
  • Robert II of Normandy, eldest son of William the Conqueror, lived 1054-1134 (15.2; 34.39)
  • Henry I, King of England, reigned 1100-1135, youngest son of William the Conqueror (15.2; 34.39)
  • Edward the Confessor, see "Saint Edward the Confessor" under "Saints"
  • Tosti, also spelled Tostig, brother of English King Harold II and ally of Norman William the Conqueror, lived 1025-1066 (21.30; 21.33-4; 21.36; 21.40)
  • Harold II of Wessex, King of England, reigned for ten months, from January to October 1066, before dying at the hands of the Normans in the Battle of Hastings (21.30; 21.33; 21.35-7; 21.40)
  • Hardrada, King of Norway, reigned 1047-1066 (21.36-7; 21.40)
  • "the bloody streams of the Derwent": reference to the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, in which the Norwegians fought against the Saxons at a bridge over the River Derwent in Yorkshire (21.40)
  • Hardicanute, King of Denmark 1035-1042, and King of England 1040-1042, last Danish King of England; famous for dying after a drinking party (21.44)
  • Matilda, also called the Empress Matilda through her marriage with German emperor Henry V, contender for the English throne and daughter of Henry I, King of England; lived 1101-1169 (23.34)
  • "It is grievous to think of those valiant barons, to whose stand against the crown the liberties of England were indebted for their existence...": Scott is referring to King John's signing of the Magna Carta in 1215, under pressure from his barons. The Magna Carta limited the rights of the king and put into place a law that was higher than royal authority (hence its protection of "the liberties of England"). (23.33)
  • Rollo, Viking leader of the 10th century (27.30)
  • "Wittenagemotes," also spelled Witenagemots, elite Anglo-Saxon political councils (27.88)
  • Horsa, with Hengist, one of the early Anglo-Saxon defenders of Britain (31.85)
  • "Estoteville": perhaps Robert II d'Estuteville, Baron of Cottingham (34.37; 41.9)
  • "Tracy, Morville, Brito [. . . and] Reginald Fitzurse": Hugh de Morville, William de Traci, Richard Brito, and Reginald Fitzurse were the four assassins of Saint Thomas à Becket. They rushed off to kill Thomas believing that they were acting on behalf of Henry II (who later repented of the murder) (34.56)
  • Hugh de Payen, also spelled Hugh de Payens or Hugues de Payens, one of the two founders of the Order of the Knights Templar (35.21)
  • Godfrey de St. Omer, also spelled Geoffrey de St. Omer, the second of the two founders of the Order of the Knights Templar (35.21)
  • Boabdil, Spanish name for Muhammad XI, the last Moorish ruler of Spain in the 15th century. We think Scott is getting his centuries confused here, since Ivanhoe is supposed to be taking place about 300 years before Boabdil's reign. (38.45; 44.60)
  • "the Regent, the Queen Mother": Eleanor of Aquitaine, mother to King Richard I and Prince John. Queen Eleanor ruled England in King Richard's place while he was prisoner in Austria. Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the most powerful European women of the medieval period. (39.36; 44.40)
  • "Beauchamp, in Warwickshire": Beauchamp is the family name of the Earl of Warwick, one of the major English aristocratic titles (41.9)
  • "Percy": Percy is the family name of the Duke of Northumberland (an aristocratic title that wasn't created until 200 years after Ivanhoe is supposed to take place, by the way) (41.9)
  • "Salisbury": this could be William of Salisbury, the second Earl of Salisbury, who died during King Richard I's reign (41.9)
  • "Bohun": The Bohun family is an Anglo-Norman lineage that has held the titles of both Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex at different times. However, in the years of King Richard I's reign (1189-1199), they were neither. Scott uses Henry Bohun as the name of the Earl of Essex; we call historical inaccuracy, since Henry de Bohun became Earl of Hereford under King Richard's enemy King John. (34.37; 41.9; as "the Earl of Essex" in Chapter 44)
  • Malcolm III, King of Scotland, reigned 1058-1093, father to Matilda, who married Henry I, King of England (42.25)
  • Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III and wife of Henry I, King of England – not to be confused with the 12th century Empress Matilda, who was Henry I's daughter (42.25)
  • Edgar Atheling, also spelled Aetheling, descendant of King Alfred the Great and Saxon heir to the throne with the death of King Harold II; didn't become king because of the defeat of the Anglo-Saxons by the Normans in 1066 (read more about that here) (42.25)
  • "the Castle of Chaluz," full name in French, the Château de Châlus-Chabrol: this castle defended the city of Limoges on the Mediterranean between the 11th and 13th centuries. King Richard I died there as a result of an arrow wound. (44.79)
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