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Jim Crow

Jim Crow

 Table of Contents

Jim Crow Learning Guide: Citations

Sources we cite in Jim Crow

1 Raymond Allen Cook, Fire from the Flint: The Amazing Careers of Thomas Dixon (Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 1968), 140.
2 Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Kessinger Publishing, 2004; originally published in 1901), 112.
3 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 504.
4 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 352.
5 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 254.
6 Bishop Henry M. Turner, The Barbarous Decision of the United States Supreme Court Declaring the Civil Rights Act Unconstitutional and Disrobing the Colored Race of All Civil Protection. The Most Cruel and Inhuman Verdict Against a Loyal People in the History of the Loyal People in the History of the World (Atlanta, GA, 1893); http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/turnerbd/turner.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
7 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: From Colonial Times to the Present (1975), series H1168-1170, p. 422.
8 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 406.
9 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: From Colonial Times to the Present (1975), series H1168-1170, p. 422.
10 Raymond Allen Cook, Fire from the Flint: The Amazing Careers of Thomas Dixon (Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 1968), 140.
11 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 358.
12 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 375.
13 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 521.
14 Lee Grieveson, Policing Cinema: Movies and Censorship in Early Twentieth-Century America (University of California Press, 2004), 128.
15 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: From Colonial Times to the Present (1975), series H1168-1170, p. 422.
16 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 35-36.
17 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: From Colonial Times to the Present (1975), series H1168-1170, p. 422.
18 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 290.
19 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 414.
20 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: From Colonial Times to the Present (1975), series H1168-1170, p. 422.
21 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: From Colonial Times to the Present (1975), series H1168-1170, p. 422.
22 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, Vol. II (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991), 413.
23 Statistic quoted in "The Great Migration," In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience, a portion of a website published by The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, http://www.inmotionaame.org/migrations/landing.cfm?migration=8, accessed 9 January 2009.
24 This version of the story of Thomas "Daddy" Rice is detailed in an article by Robert P. Nevin in the Atlantic Monthly (1867), quoted in Edward Le Roy Rice, Monarchs of Minstrelsy, from "Daddy" Rice to Date (New York: Kenny Publishing Company, 1911), 7-8.
25 Ron Powers, Mark Twain: A Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 35.
26 Ray Stannard Baker, Following the Colour Line (New York, 1908), 28, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 199.
27 Pauli Murray, States' Laws on Race and Color, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 352.
28 Arthur Franklin Raper, The Tragedy of Lynching (New York, 2003; originally published in 1933), 385.
29 Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002), 134.
30 D.W. Griffith, dir., Birth of a Nation (1915).
31 D.W. Griffith, dir., Birth of a Nation (1915).
32 Karl Brown quoted in Jill Nelmes, An Introduction to Film Studies (New York: Routledge, 1996), 104.
33 Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 281-294.
34 Crisis, 10 (June 1915), 71, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 286-287.
35 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: From Colonial Times to the Present (1975), series H1168-1170, p. 422; for unofficial statistics on lynching murders see "The Lynching Calendar," http://www.autopsis.org/foot/lynchdates2.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
36 David M. Oshinsky, "Worse Than Slavery": Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice (New York, 1996), 215, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 267,
37 Chicago Defender, 20 May 1916, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 292.
38 President Woodrow Wilson at the White House, 18 February 1915, quoted in John Ayto and Ian Crofton, eds., Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2006), 81.
39 William Walker quoted in Jill Nelmes, An Introduction to Film Studies (New York: Routledge, 1996), 103.
40 James Roberts Gilmore, Here and There in Our Own Country, Embracing Sketches of Travel and Descriptions of Places (Philadelphia, 1885), 15, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 246-247.
41 Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1984), 377, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 248.
42 Theodore Rosengarten, All God's Dangers: The Life of Nate Shaw (New York, 1974), 352.
43 Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 276.
44 Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1984), 377, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 248.
45 Thelma Williams, interview, archived by The History of Jim Crow, http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/resources/narratives/Thelma_Williams.htm, accessed 9 January 2009.
46 Richard Wright, Black Boy (New York: Harper Collins, 1998; originally published in 1945), 23.
47 Theodore Roosevelt Davidson, interview, archived by The History of Jim Crow, http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/resources/narratives/TR_Davidson.htm, 9 January 2009.
48 Theodore Roosevelt Davidson, interview, archived by The History of Jim Crow, http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/resources/narratives/TR_Davidson.htm, 9 January 2009.
49 Richard Wright, Black Boy (New York: Harper Collins, 1998; originally published in 1945), 150.
50 Richard Wright, Black Boy (New York: Harper Collins, 1998; originally published in 1945), 64.
51 Benjamin E. Mays, Born to Rebel: An Autobiography (New York: 1971), 1, cited in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 12-13.
52 Martin Luther King, Sr., with Clayton Riley, Daddy King: An Autobiography (New York, 1980), 29-31, cited in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 13.
53 Ruth E. Hill, ed., Black Women Oral History Project (10 vols.; Westport, Conn., 1991), VIII, 14, cited Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 13.
54 Pauli Murray, Proud Shoes: The Story of an American Family (New York, 1956), 262-265, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 13.
55 Richard Wright, Black Boy (New York: Harper Collins, 1998; originally published in 1945), 78.
56 Martin Luther King, Sr., with Clayton Riley, Daddy King: An Autobiography (New York, 1980), 29-31, cited in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 13.
57 Pauli Murray, Proud Shoes: The Story of an American Family (New York, 1956), 270, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 30-31
58 Jack Johnson quoted in Gavin Evans, Kings of the Ring: The History of Heavyweight Boxing (Great Britain, 2005), 58.
59 Charles Dana, editor of The New York Sun, quoted in William C. Rhoden, "A Modern Morality Play, In 12 Rounds," New York Times, 9 November 1996.
60 Lee Grieveson, Policing Cinema: Movies and Censorship in Early Twentieth-Century America (University of California Press, 2004), 128.
61 "Crowd Gathers at Arena," New York Times, 5 July 1910, p. 3.
62 "Outclassed Him, Johnson Declares," New York Times, 5 July 1910, p. 3.
63 John L. Sullivan, "Johnson Wins in 15 Rounds; Jeffries Weak," New York Times, 5 July 1910, p. 1.
64 John L. Sullivan, "Johnson Wins in 15 Rounds; Jeffries Weak," New York Times, 5 July 1910, p. 1.
65 John L. Sullivan, "Johnson Wins in 15 Rounds; Jeffries Weak," New York Times, 5 July 1910, p. 1.
66 "Outclassed Him, Johnson Declares," New York Times, 5 July 1910, pg. 3.
67 Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002), 42.
68 Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002), 64-66.
69 Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002), 134.
70 Booker T. Washington, "Atlanta Exposition Address," delivered in Atlanta, Georgia, 18 September 1895; reprinted in Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002), 142-145.
71 Booker T. Washington, "Atlanta Exposition Address," delivered in Atlanta, Georgia, 18 September 1895; reprinted in Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002), 142-145.
72 Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002), 135.
73 W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (New York, 2003; originally published in 1903), 46.
74 Letter from Cleveland Galliard of Mobile, Alabama, to the Bethlehem Baptist Association, Chicago, Illinois, in 1917 Holograph Carter G. Woodson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/images/galliard.jpg, accessed 9 January 2009.
75 Letter quoted in Emmett J. Scott, "Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916-1918," in The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July 1919), 291.
76 Letter quoted in Emmett J. Scott, "Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916-1918," in The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July 1919), 292.
77 Letter quoted in Emmett J. Scott, "Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916-1918," in The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July 1919), 296-297.
78 Letter quoted in Emmett J. Scott, "Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916-1918," in The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July 1919), 304.
79 Letter from Mrs. J. H. Adams, Macon, Georgia, to the Bethlehem Baptist Association, Chicago, Illinois, in 1918 Holograph Carter G. Woodson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/images/adams.jpg, accessed 9 January 2009.
80 Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 281-294.
81 David M. Oshinsky, "Worse Than Slavery": Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice (New York, 1996), 215, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 267,
82 Randall Kennedy, "Marital Color Line," The Nation, 7 December 2000, http://www.thenation.com/doc/20001225/kennedy, accessed 9 January 2009.
83 "Jim Crow Laws Remain on the Books," USA Today: Society of the Advancement of Education, August 2004, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2711_133/ai_n6148297, accessed 9 January 2009.
84 "Jim Crow Laws Remain on the Books," USA Today: Society of the Advancement of Education, August 2004, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2711_133/ai_n6148297, accessed 9 January 2009.
85 "Jim Crow Laws Remain on the Books," USA Today: Society of the Advancement of Education, August 2004, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2711_133/ai_n6148297, accessed 9 January 2009.
86 Benjamin E. Mays, Born to Rebel: An Autobiography (New York, 1971), 22.
87 Arthur Knock, ed., The Editorials of Henry Watterson (New York, 1923), 314, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 199.
88 Karl Brown quoted in Jill Nelmes, An Introduction to Film Studies (New York: Routledge, 1996), 104.
89 William Walker quoted in Jill Nelmes, An Introduction to Film Studies (New York: Routledge, 1996), 103.
90 Raymond Allen Cook, Fire from the Flint: The Amazing Careers of Thomas Dixon (Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 1968), 140.
91 Crisis, 10 (June 1915), 71, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 286-287.
92 Chicago Defender, 20 May 1916, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 292.
93 Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1984), 377, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 248.
94 Richard Wright, Black Boy (New York: Harper Collins, 1998; originally published in 1945), 78.
95 Theodore Roosevelt Davidson, interview, archived by The History of Jim Crow, http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/resources/narratives/TR_Davidson.htm, 9 January 2009.
96 "Hellhound On My Trail," Robert Johnson: The Complete Recordings (Columbia Recordings).
97 Theodore Rosengarten, All God's Dangers: The Life of Nate Shaw (New York, 1974), 108.
98 George P. Rawick, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography (19 vols.; Westport, Conn., 1972), Vol. 3, 1130, quoted in Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998), 117.
99 W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (New York, 1982; originally published in 1903), 45.
100 Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (Boston, MA, 2003; originally published in 1901), 58.
101 W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (New York, 1982; first published in 1903), 88.
102 Letter from Cleveland Galliard of Mobile, Alabama, to the Bethlehem Baptist Association, Chicago, Illinois, in 1917 Holograph Carter G. Woodson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/images/galliard.jpg, accessed 9 January 2009.
103 Letter from Mrs. J. H. Adams, Macon, Georgia, to the Bethlehem Baptist Association, Chicago, Illinois, in 1918 Holograph Carter G. Woodson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/images/adams.jpg, accessed 9 January 2009.
104 "Outclassed Him, Johnson Declares," New York Times, 5 July 1910, pg. 3.

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