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Jude the Obscure

Jude the Obscure


by Thomas Hardy

Analysis: Allusions

When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.

Literary and Philosophical References

Hardy knows his classics, and he's not afraid to show it:

  • Clarke's Homer (1.4.12)
  • Hesiod (1.6.4)
  • Thucydides (1.6.4)
  • Shakespeare (2.1.16)
  • Gibbon (2.3.28)
  • "Ghastly, grim, and ancient raven […]" – Poe, "The Raven" (2.6.18)
  • "Above the youth's inspired and flashing eyes […]" – Heine (2.6.45)
  • "I have understanding as well as you […]" – Job xii.3 (2.6.59)
  • "O ghastly glories of saints, dead limbs of gibbeted Gods!" – Swinburne, Hymn to Proserpine (4.1.57)
  • Don Quixote (4.1.68)
  • "Where Duncliffe is the traveller's mark […]" – William Barnes (4.4.14)
  • "The soldier saints who, row on row/Burn upward each to his point of bliss." - Browning, The Statue and the Bust (4.5.16)
  • "There was a Being whom my spirit oft/Met on its visioned wanderings aloft" – Shelley (4.5.113)
  • The Agamemnon (6.2.71)
  • Antigone (6.9.30)

Historical References

  • Here's a list he drops…you know, for fun: Newman, Pusey, Ward, Keble (2.4.45)

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