| Quote #1
He cast his eye upon Emelya,
For Palamon, it's love at first sight. The second he sees Emily, he's done for. Courtly love, a system of rules surrounding the love of a knight for a noble damsel, talks about the love for a woman striking the heart of a man like a dart. That's probably why Palamon cries out, "A!" here: to show he's been struck.
| Quote #2
This prison caused me nat for to crye,
Palamon speaks of his sudden lovesickness for Emily like a poison or "bane." It has entered through his eye and made its way to its heart, where it will destroy him. Why will it destroy him? Well, in courtly love language it's common to speak of a love as a sickness that causes one to almost die from sadness at not possessing the beloved. (For more on this, check out "Symbolism, Imagery, Allegory.")
| Quote #3
'I noot wher she be womman or goddesse,
The courtly lover places his lady on a pedestal so high that she is almost more than human. Here, she's a goddess. And to show that this is not just a metaphor or a manner of speaking, Palamon even prays to Venus, the goddess of love, to help him escape from prison.