| Quote #1
the learn'd astronomer; (line 1)
The speaker expresses his dissatisfaction using irony, which is when you say something other than what you mean. Sarcasm is a common form of irony. He doesn't really think that the astronomer is so "learn'd," at least concerning the important things in life.
| Quote #2
When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns
The phrase "before me" really signals his dissatisfaction here. He feels under siege by all those intimidating-looking numbers. They seem directed at him and not just the crowd.
| Quote #3
How soon, unaccountable, I became tired and sick; (line 5)
You might think that his dissatisfaction could be easily explained: he's bored! But Whitman doesn't want us to leap to this simple conclusion. He says that his negative reaction is "unaccountable" – basically, a mystery. Notice that his unhappiness manifests itself in physical symptoms.