From 11:00PM PDT on Friday, July 1 until 5:00AM PDT on Saturday, July 2, the Shmoop engineering elves will be making tweaks and improvements to the site. That means Shmoop will be unavailable for use during that time. Thanks for your patience!
The mother of King Louis XIV and his twin, Philippe. Although once a powerful political figure – she ruled France as regent when Louis was not yet of age - her power is on the decline in The Man in the Iron Mask. Dumas portrays her as a mother who unquestioningly sacrifices Philippe for political stability.