Manifest Destiny & Mexican-American War
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1 Ralph Waldo Emerson, Journals, VII, 206; quoted in Marjory M. Moody, "The Evolution of Emerson as an Abolitionist," American Literature 17:1 (Mar., 1945), 11fn41.
2 Scott Sigmund Gartner, "Military personnel and casualties, by war and branch of service: 1775-1991," Table Ed1-5, Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition, ed. Susan Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael Haines, Alan Olmsted, Richard Sutch and Gavin Wright (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), http://hsus.cambridge.org/, accessed 5 January 2009.
3 On Mexican casualties, which by all accounts are only rough approximations and very difficult to ascertain, see Mark Crawford, Encyclopedia of the Mexican-American War, eds. David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999), 68, which argues that "at least 82,000 men served as regular or guerrilla troops; of these approximately 14,700 were reported as killed or wounded....Civilian losses are even harder to approximate. A total of approximately 1,000 civilians were killed or wounded during the Battles of Monterrey, Veracruz, Mexico City, and Huamantla. Civilian losses in atrocities by U.S. soldiers and guerrillas number in the hundreds." See also an 1850 account that professes a moderate estimate of "three times the number [of Mexican soldiers] compared with our troops were in the field, and that the loss in battle averaged three times as much; and that the loss in battle and sickness together was as much or more than that of the Americans." Abiel Abbot Livermore, The War with Mexico Reviewed (1850), quoted in The United States and Mexico at War, ed. Donald S. Frazier (New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1998), 299.
4 John S. D. Eisenhower, "Polk and His Generals," in Essays on the Mexican War, ed. Douglas W. Richmond (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1986), 35-38.
5 Bear Flag Revolt, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, 14 August 2007, http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9013933, accessed 9 January 2009.
6 Michelle L. Butler, Myron P. Gutmann, and Michael R. Haines , "Land area, by state and territory: 1790-1990," Table Cf8-64, Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition, ed. Susan Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael Haines, Alan Olmsted, Richard Sutch and Gavin Wright (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), http://hsus.cambridge.org/, accessed 5 January 2009.
7 Armed Forces History Collections, in cooperation with the Public Inquiry Mail Service, Smithsonian Institution, "Facts about the United States Flag," September 2001, http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmah/flag.htm, accessed 22 June 2007.
8 Henry David Thoreau, "Civil Disobedience," originally published as "Resistance to Civil Government" (1849), in The Writings of Henry David Thoreau (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1906), Vol. 4, p. 356.
9 Charles Sellers, The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 426.
10 George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 607, A38.
11 James M. McPherson, "The Causes of the Civil War," Teaching American History Podcast, 2007.
12 David M. Potter, The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861, completed and edited by Don E. Fehrenbacher (New York: Harper & Row, 1976), 1.
13 Terry G. Jordan, "Population Origins in Texas, 1850," Geographical Review 59:1 (Jan., 1969), pp. 83-103.
14 George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), 586; Gary B. Nash and Julie Roy Jeffrey, eds., The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society (New York: Longman, 2003), 377.
15 Charles Sellers, The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 422.
16 See George B. Ballentine, Autobiography of an English Soldier in the United States Army, William H. Goetzmann, ed. (Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1984), 28; K. Jack Bauer, The Mexican War: 1846-1848 (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1974), 397; Foos, A short, offhand, killing affair, 25; Christon I. Archer, "Discord, Disjunction, and Reveries of Past and Future Glories: Mexico's First Decades of Independence, 1810-1853," Mexican Studies / Estudios Mexicanos 16:1 (Winter, 2000), 207.