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Mechanisms of Evolution

Mechanisms of Evolution

Test Your Knowledge!

Charles Darwin and the Origin of the Species

1. Which of the following affect natural selection?
  
(A) Time
(B) Environment
(C) Geography
(D) A and C
(E) All of the above

2. True or False: Evolution takes place over multiple generations.

3. What makes species distinct?

4. A       phenotype has more than one       that influences it.

5. Which is an example of common descent with modification?
   
(A) One species of raspberries that has little variety in leaf color
(B) Two new species of raspberries that diverged from a species that grows in colder climates
(C) Two of the same species of raspberries with different sized leaves
(D) All of the above
(E) None of the above

The Gene Pool

1. For beak color in a species of finch, there is a red allele and a yellow allele. Thirty percent of gametes in the population have a red allele. What percent of gametes in the population have a yellow allele?
  
(A) 70%
(B) 60%
(C) 50%
(D) 30%
(E) 20%

2. In a population of elephants, 20% of gametes carry an allele that codes for yellow toenails. A second allele codes for white toenails. What percent of the population is homozygous for yellow toenails?
  
(A) 80%
(B) 4%
(C) 16%
(D) 32%
(E) 64%

3. For all of the following, the Hardy-Weinberg equation does not apply EXCEPT
  
(A) Gene flow
(B) Natural Selection
(C) Multiple generations
(D) Evolution
(E) Four alleles for one gene

4. A new species of tulips diverged from a popular Dutch species. Which of the following describes this event?
   
(A) Microevolution
(B) Macroevolution
(C) Genetic equilibrium
(D) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
(E) Gene pool

5.       describes all the alleles of the genes in a population.

Mutations

1. True or False: A mutation that causes microevolution is probably an adaptive mutation.

2. An adaptive mutation can confer an advantage, leading to Darwin's idea of      .

3. Which of the following is not true?
  
(A) A mutation can change a protein's amino acid sequence
(B) A mutation can be in a regulatory region of a gene
(C) A mutation always affects a phenotype
(D) A mutation can be harmful to a species
(E) All of the above are true

4. True or False: The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium still applies when a mutation introduces a new allele into the population.

5. Adaptive mutations…
  
(A) Introduce a new phenotype
(B) Change the gene pool
(C) Can cause natural selection
(D) Can cause microevolution
(E) All of the above are true

Gene Flow and Genetic Drift

1. An earthquake destroys a large number of elm trees, changing the allelic frequency of tree size in the population. Which concept best describes this?
  
(A) The founder effect
(B)The bottleneck effect
(C) The gene pool
(D) Mutations
(E) Genetic equilibrium

2.       describes the genetic drift that occurs when a few bees fly off to start a new colony.

3. What could change as a result of one large population moving to a new location?
  
(A) The founder effect
(B) The bottleneck effect
(C) The gene pool
(D) Alleles
(E) Mutations

4. True or False: Genetic drift is changing allelic frequencies within a population, as opposed to between populations.

5.      describes what can happen when one population joins another.

Sexual Selection

1. Which of the following is an example of something that could lead to intrasexual selection?
  
(A) A bull defends a large territory
(B) A bull has a longer tail
(C) A bull has a healthy immune system
(D) A bull has an attractive coat
(E) All of the above are examples

2. True or false: A wolf that has defined itself as leader of the pack and mates with multiple females exhibits intersexual selection.

3. What is the difference between natural and sexual selection?

4. What does sexual selection do that drives evolution?
  
(A) Increases the population size
(B) Increases the gene pool
(C) Changes the natural selection
(D) Changes the allelic frequencies of genes
(E) All of the above

5. True or false: A bright red robin attracting the most females due to its vibrant feathers is an example of intersexual selection.

Natural Selection

1. Natural selection that decreases the variety of a phenotype but does not change the mean is…
  
(A) Disruptive
(B) Directional
(C) Sexual
(D) Stabilizing
(E) Bidirectional

2. Longer legs are favored in a praying mantis population. This causes what type of selection?
  
(A) Disruptive
(B) Directional
(C) Sexual
(D) Stabilizing
(E) Bidirectional

3.       describes when two extremes of a phenotype have become more common.

4. True or False: An organism's fitness determines its strength.

5. What type of selection describes choosing a mate based on its fuller tail?
  
(A) Disruptive
(B) Directional
(C) Sexual
(D) Stabilizing
(E) Bidirectional

Speciation

1. Which of the following best describes a genome duplication event that results in two species:
  
(A) Allopatric speciation
(B) Sympatric speciation
(C) Coevolution
(D) Convergent evolution
(E) Gradualism

2. Which of the following best describes two species that result from a symbiotic relationship?
  
(A) Allopatric speciation
(B) Sympatric speciation
(C) Coevolution
(D) Convergent evolution
(E) Gradualism

3.       describes the time it takes for macroevolution to occur.

4. True of False: Two species of hummingbirds do not respond to each other's mating calls. This is an example of postzygotic reproductive isolation.

5. True or False: Selection for two populations of beetles for two different color patterns could eventually lead to speciation by disruptive selection.

Answers

Charles Darwin and the Origin of the Species

1. Which of the following affect natural selection?

(A) Time
(B) Environment
(C) Geography
(D) A and C
(E) All of the above

Natural selection can't happen overnight. Like a fine wine, these things take time. Geographical and environmental changes often cause natural selection to transform a population.

2. True or False: Evolution takes place over multiple generations.
True. Evolution is gradual.

3. What makes species distinct?

Members within a species are only able to mate and reproduce with each other.

4. A       phenotype has more than one       that influences it.

Polygenic, gene

5. Which is an example of common descent with modification?

(B) Two new species of raspberries that diverged from a species that grows in colder climates

Common descent with modification suggests a common ancestor exists between all species. So, the two species of raspberries must have branched from a common ancestor. Variety within a species, or lack thereof, would be a result of the alleles within a population.

The Gene Pool

1. For beak color in a species of finch, there is a red allele and a yellow allele. Thirty percent of gametes in the population have a red allele. What percent of gametes in the population have a yellow allele?

(A) 70%

If there are two alleles in a population, and the chance that you would randomly reach your hand into a hat full of alleles and find a red one is 30%. The rest of the gametes would have yellow. 100%-30%=70%

2. In a population of elephants, 20% of gametes carry an allele that codes for yellow toenails. A second allele codes for white toenails. What percent of the population is homozygous for yellow toenails?

(B) 4%

Time to break out the Hardy-Weinberg equation! If yellow toenail color was "p" in this equation, the percent of the population with this genotype would be p2, which equals 0.2 X 0.2 = 0.04, or 4%!

3. For all of the following, the Hardy-Weinberg equation does not apply EXCEPT… 
(C) Multiple generations

There are many cases when the Hardy-Weinberg equation is not useful – any of them that cause evolution will negate it. However, having multiple generations is okay as long as those multiple generations are not evolving.

4. A new species of tulips diverged from a popular Dutch species. Which of the following describes this event?

(B) Macroevolution

Macroevolution describes a split in the species. The species parts ways, if you will. The divergence cannot happen in a short time frame. Patience is a virtue and evolution learned that one early. These things take multiple generations of microevolution and selection.

5.       describes all the alleles of the genes in a population.

The Gene Pool. It's like an all-inclusive resort. It has everything included.

Mutations

1. True or False: A mutation that causes microevolution is probably an adaptive mutation.

True

2. An adaptive mutation can confer an advantage, leading to Darwin's idea of      .

Natural Selection

3. Which of the following is not true?

(C) A mutation always affects a phenotype

Beware the always, those mutations in junk DNA, as well as silent mutations, don't do a thing.

4. True or False: The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium still applies when a mutation introduces a new allele into the population.

False. That HW, he does not like change.

5. Adaptive mutations…

(A) Introduce a new phenotype
(B) Change the gene pool
(C) Can cause natural selection
(D) Can cause microevolution
(E) All of the above are true

Adaptive mutations can cause a lot of chaos in a population, but for the greater good!

Gene Flow and Genetic Drift

1. An earthquake destroys a large number of elm trees, changing the allelic frequency of tree size in the population. Which concept best describes this?

(B) The bottleneck effect

If an earthquake caused the forest to become a lumberyard, only the standing trees would be able to repopulate the area. This is the bottleneck effect.

2.       describes the genetic drift that occurs when a few bees fly off to start a new colony.

The founder effect creates new populations, able to provide more delicious honey for Winnie the Pooh.

3. What could change as a result of one large population moving to a new location?

(C) The gene pool

Going and flowing, moving and grooving—a gene flow can mean new blood in a population and new genes in the gene pool.

4. True or False: Genetic drift is changing allelic frequencies within a population, as opposed to between populations.

True

5.      describes what can happen when one population joins another.

Gene flow

Sexual Selection

1. Which of the following is an example of something that could lead to intrasexual selection?

(A) A bull defends a large territory

Only defending its territory will make a bull more competitive against other bulls, winning him the most dates with the ladies.

2. True or false: A wolf that has defined itself as leader of the pack and mates with multiple females exhibits intersexual selection.

False. A leader of the pack has fought for that title, winning intrasexual selection. Go ahead and put that trophy on your wall.

3. What is the difference between natural and sexual selection?

In sexual selection, the mates do the selecting. In natural selection, nature does all the work.

4. What does sexual selection do that drives evolution?

(D) Changes the allelic frequencies of genes

When organisms don't mate randomly, which happens the majority of the time, they choose a mate based on some fabulous traits. If that fabulous individual reproduces multiple times because of its fabulous traits, its fabulous alleles will fabulously become more frequent. Fabulous.

5. True or false: A bright red robin attracting the most females due to its vibrant feathers is an example of intersexual selection.

True story.

Natural Selection

1. Natural selection that decreases the variety of a phenotype but does not change the mean is…

(D) Stabilizing

Everything's "stable," and not much has changed.

2. Longer legs are favored in a praying mantis population. This causes what type of selection?

(B) Directional

Directional. We're skewering the leg size by favoring longer stems. Or at least legs that resemble stems.

3.       describes when two extremes of a phenotype have become more common.

Disruptive selection. Disruption of the middle man/phenotype.

4. True or False: An organism's fitness determines its strength.

False. Being fit doesn't necessarily guarantee longevity or the ability to run a marathon, but it does help you survive and reproduce.

5. What type of selection describes choosing a mate based on its fuller tail?

(C) Sexual

When a mate has done the selecting, it's not natural selection anymore.

Speciation

1. Which of the following best describes a genome duplication event that results in two species:

(B) Sympatric speciation

Sympatric speciation, which doesn't need physical separation of the organisms involved

2. Which of the following best describes two species that result from a symbiotic relationship?

(C) Coevolution

Coevolution, what happens when two species buddy up.

3.       describes the time it takes for macroevolution to occur.

Gradualism.

4. True of False: Two species of hummingbirds do not respond to each other's mating calls. This is an example of postzygotic reproductive isolation.

False. This is an example of prezygotic reproductive isolation, as it will prevent mating in the two different species of hummingbirds.

5. True or False: Selection for two populations of beetles for two different color patterns could eventually lead to speciation by disruptive selection.

True. It doesn't have to happen, but it can.

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