The Metamorphoses Gender Quotes
How we cite our quotes:
Now, to deceive her husband, Telethusa gave orders to the nurse (for she alone knew of this guile) to feed the newborn child and to tell everyone it was a son. And Ligdus thanked the gods, and to the child he gave the name of Ligdus' father: Iphis. And Telethusa was most pleased with this: it was a name that suited male or female – a neutral name, whose use involved no tricks. No one unmasked the pious lie. She dressed her Iphis as a boy – and whether one assigned them to a daughter or a son, the features of the child were surely handsome. (9.706-713)
Long before gender-neutral names became popular, Telethusa caught a lucky break when her husband gave their daughter the name "Iphis," which was also the name of his father. As it turned out, Iphis, who was raised as a boy, ended up being attracted to girls. What, if anything, do you think this story reveals about Ovid's views on gender?
(Latreus in Nestor's tale): "Must I, o Caenis, suffer one like you! For me, you'll always be a woman, you are nothing more than Caenis. Yes, you seem to have forgotten that your origins were feminine; you don't remember what you had to do to merit this reward, the price you paid to earn yourself this false appearance of a man! Remember then just what you were at birth, what you went through: now go, take up the distaff – that's your due: take up the basket heaped with threads, the wool your thumb can twist: let men attend to war!" But when he heard such boasting, Caenus cast a lance that pierced the side of Latreus (12.470-478)
There's no question about Latreus's views on gender. He thinks that, because Caenus started out as a woman named Caenis, he must still be a woman to this day. Also, he seems to hold gender stereotypes about women. He quickly learns his mistake, however, when Caenus spears him in the side.
(Ulysses): "When Thetis, Nereid mother of Achilles, foresaw her dear son's doom, she tricked you all; she dressed him in the clothes of a young girl, and Ajax, like the rest of you, was fooled. But I slipped in – among the women's stuff that lay about – some weapons, of the sort to draw a man's attention. While still dressed as girl, the hero gripped a shield and lance; I said: 'O son of Thetis, Troy must face her fate, her fall: it's you whom she awaits. Why, then, delay the day when she must die?' I placed my hands upon him, and I sent the hero off to his heroic tasks." (13.162-170)
This story about Achilles seems to send a contradictory message to that about Iphis. OK, so the situations aren't exactly the same, because Achilles is only briefly disguised as a girl by his mother, instead of being raised that way from birth. Still, it is interesting that Ulysses guesses (correctly, in this instance) that the child dressed as a girl will be interested in typical manly pursuits like warfare. Too bad for Thetis. Achilles goes off to Troy, wins great fame as a warrior, and finds an early grave.