A Midsummer Night's Dream
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A Midsummer Night's Dream Allusions & Cultural References
When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.
Major Literary Sources
- Ovid, Metamorphoses – Transformation in the play; the source of the characters Pyramus and Thisbe.
- Chaucer, The Knight's Tale – The characters of Hippolyta and Theseus appear here. Also, Lysander and Demetrius's pursuit of Helena echoes the way two knights, Palamon and Arcite fight over Emily. Also, Theseus and Hippolyta are characters in this tale.
- Plutarch, Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans – Plutarch's "Life of Theseus" informs Shakespeare's portrayal of this character.
- Apuleius, Golden Ass – This seems to be the literary source for Bottom's transformation into a human with the head of a donkey
- Corinthians 1: 2-9 – Bottom's language in 4.1 is a parody of St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians.
Elizabethan Political Figures
- Queen Elizabeth I – Oberon's description of the "fair vestal [virgin] throned by the west" (2.1) is a shout-out to Shakespeare virgin monarch. Also, "Fairy Queen" (Titania) was Queen Elizabeth's nickname.
Figures from Folklore and Mythology
- Hercules (1.2, 4.1, 5.1)
- Diana (1.1; 1.1); as Phoebe (4.1)
- Cupid (1.1, 1.1, 2.1, 3.2, 3.2, 4.1)
- Venus (1.1, 3.2, 3.2)
- Robin Goodfellow is often referred to as Puck and sometimes called "Hobgoblin." He's a common figure in English folklore.