Muckrakers & Reformers
Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) was president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) during the final push for the vote before the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920. She also founded the International Woman Suffrage Association and served as its honorary president until 1923.
Catt worked at both the state and federal levels to support legislation to enfranchise women. A supporter of President Woodrow Wilson, she consequently opposed the more radical tactics of fellow NAWSA activist Alice Paul when Paul tried to provoke change by voting the Democrats out of office. Instead, Catt orchestrated a "winning plan" for suffrage victory that would coordinate activities among state and local suffrage associations. Catt remained at the head of NAWSA while Paul formed her own organization, the NWP. After women achieved the franchise, Catt reorganized NAWSA as the League of Women Voters.